Our objective was to quantify the effect of mineral nutrient concentration of a nutrient solution on the growth of basil species and cultivars grown under high and low photosynthetic daily light integrals (DLIs). Sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum ‘Nufar’), lemon basil (O. ×citriodorum ‘Lime’), and holy basil (O. tenuiflorum ‘Holy’) seedlings were transplanted into nutrient-film technique (NFT) systems with different nutrient solution electrical conductivities (EC; 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, or 4.0 dS·m–1) in greenhouses with a low (≈7 mol·m–2·d–1) or high (≈15 mol·m–2·d–1) DLI. Although nutrient solution EC did not affect growth and morphology, increasing DLI did. For example, when sweet basil was grown under a high DLI, the fresh and dry weight, height, and node number increased by 144%, 178%, 20%, and 18%, respectively, compared with plants grown under the low DLI, and branching was also stimulated. In contrast, DLI had little effect on tissue nutrient concentration, although nutrient solution did. Most tissue nutrient concentrations increased with increasing EC, with the exception of Mg and Ca. For example, N in sweet basil increased by 0.6% to 0.7% whereas Mg decreased by 0.2% as EC increased from 0.5 to 4.0 dS·m–1. Across treatments and basil species, tissue nutrient concentrations were generally within recommended ranges with no visible deficiencies. Based on our results, nutrient solution concentrations for hydroponic basil production can be selected based on factors such as other species grown in the same solution or by reducing fertilizer inputs.
Basil (Ocimum sp.) is the most popular fresh culinary herb, but the effects of air temperature on growth and development of basil have not been well characterized. Our objective was to quantify the effects of air temperature on growth and development of three basil species. Seedlings of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum ‘Nufar’), holy basil (O. tenuiflorum), and lemon basil (O. ×citriodorum ‘Lime’ and O. basilicum ‘Sweet Dani’) were placed in five different growth chambers with target air temperatures of 11, 17, 23, 29, or 35 °C. After 3 weeks, chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv/Fm), plant height, node and branch number, fresh and dry weight, and flowering data were recorded. For all species, Fv/Fm increased as temperature increased to 17 or 23 °C, then plateaued, whereas height increased with temperature to 23 or 29 °C. Also, the percentage of plants with flowers or flower buds increased with temperature to 17 or 23 °C for all species, with the exception of sweet basil, of which all plants were vegetative and node appearance rate was calculated. Sweet basil node appearance increased from 0.03 to 0.30 node/day as the temperature increased from 11 to 29 °C. Fresh weight gain increased with increasing temperature to 29 °C, but then decreased at 35 °C. Data from plants grown within the linear air temperature range were used to develop models for calculating the base temperature (Tb) and predicting growth in response to air temperature. These models can be applied by commercial producers to schedule crops and predict yields.
Our objective was to quantify foliar ethephon application effects on flowering and growth of several streptocarpus (Streptocarpus ×hybridus) cultivars. ‘Ladyslippers Blue Halo’, ‘Ladyslippers Deep Blue Vein’, and ‘Ladyslippers Red Rose’ streptocarpus were planted in 6-inch containers filled with a soilless substrate. Foliar spray applications of solutions containing 0, 125, 250, 500, or 1000 mg·L−1 ethephon were applied either 2 weeks after planting (one application) or 2 and 4 weeks after planting (two applications). After 13 weeks, the total number of inflorescences was recorded and the growth index (GI) and time to flower were calculated. The efficacy of ethephon sprays depended on the concentration, number of applications, and cultivar. A single application of 250 to 1000 mg·L−1 ethephon delayed flowering of ‘Ladyslipper Deep Blue Vein’ by 9 to 27 days, whereas one application of 1000 mg·L−1 applied to ‘Ladyslipper Red Rose’ delayed flowering by 9 days. Similarly, two applications of any ethephon concentration delayed flowering of ‘Ladyslipper Deep Blue Vein’ by up to 37 days, while flowering of ‘Ladyslipper Red Rose’ was delayed by 17 days when 1000 mg·L−1 was applied. The GI of ‘Ladyslipper Deep Blue’ and ‘Ladyslipper Red Rose’ was unaffected by ethephon and, while the GI of ‘Ladyslipper Blue Halo’ was smaller than untreated plants when one or two applications of 500 or 1000 mg·L−1 ethephon was applied; these smaller plants were still of marketable size and quality. We conclude that ethephon may be used to delay flowering and reduce the number of inflorescences formed before finishing with minimal impact on finished plant size.
Basil (Ocimum sp.) is the most popular fresh culinary herb. However, there is a lack of data characterizing the effect of hydroponic production systems and cultivars on the yield of hydroponically produced basil. Our objectives were to quantify productivity and characterize growth of basil cultivars grown in two hydroponic production systems. Thirty-five basil cultivars, including selections of sweet basil (O. basilicum), holy basil (O. tenuiflorum), and lemon basil (O. ×citriodorum and O. basilicum) were chosen. Seedlings were transplanted into nutrient film technique (NFT) or deep flow technique (DFT) systems and grown for 3 weeks. There was no interaction between basil cultivars and hydroponic production system. Fresh weight of plants grown in DFT systems was 2.6 g greater compared with plants grown in NFT systems. Basil cultivars differed greatly in fresh weight. In general, holy, lemon, and sweet basil cultivars produce moderate to high fresh weight, but vary greatly. Dissimilarly, bush (O. basilicum var. minimum), cinnamon (O. basilicum), large-leaf (O. basilicum), and thai basils (O. basilicum var. thyrisiflorum) produce moderate fresh weight and purple basil (O. basilicum) cultivars produce the least fresh weight. The yield of basil seems to be affected more by cultivar selection than hydroponic production system. Therefore, hydroponic basil producers should select basil cultivars based on flavor and yield, while hydroponic systems should be selected based on operational preferences.
Our objectives were to quantify the effects of controlled-release fertilizer (CRF) on the growth, morphology, and tissue nutrient concentration of annual bedding plants during propagation. Unrooted cuttings of Angelonia angustifolia ‘AngelFace White’ and ‘Sundancer Pink’, Impatiens hawkeri ‘Celebrette Apricot’ and ‘Celebrette Rose Hot’, Nemesia fruticans ‘Bluebird’ and ‘Raspberry Sachet’, Pelargonium ×hortorum ‘Savannah Red’, and Petunia ×hybrida ‘Cascadia Marshmallow Pink’ and ‘Suncatcher Yellow’ were received from a commercial propagator. Cuttings were immediately stuck individually in cells containing soilless substrate supplemented with 0, 3, 6, 12, or 24 g·L−1 CRF (Osmocote Plus 15–3.9–10 3–4 month) and placed under clear mist water or cuttings were stuck in substrate containing no CRF and fertilized with water-soluble fertilizer beginning immediately after placing cuttings into propagation. Shoot dry mass of cuttings grown in substrates containing up to 12 or 24 g·L−1 CRF increased by up to 150% for some taxa compared with unfertilized cuttings. Incorporating CRFs into propagation substrates increased the concentration of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) in tissues by up to 103%, 42%, and 137%, respectively, compared with unfertilized cuttings. Additionally, tissue nutrient concentrations for cuttings fertilized with 6 g·L−1 CRF or greater were similar to cuttings receiving water-soluble fertilizer (WSF). When the impact of CRF on growth and nutrient concentrations are taken together, our results indicate that CRF is a fertilization application technology that holds promise for use during propagation of herbaceous stem-tip cuttings.
Increasing photosynthetic daily light integral (DLI) by supplementing with high-pressure sodium (HPS) lamps during propagation has been shown to enhance photosynthesis and biomass accumulation of cuttings. The development of high-intensity light-emitting diodes (LEDs) is a promising technology with potential as a greenhouse supplemental lighting source. Our objective was to quantify the impact of narrow spectra supplemental lighting from LEDs on growth, morphology, and gas exchange of cuttings compared with traditional HPS supplemental lighting. Cuttings of Impatiens hawkeri W. Bull ‘Celebrette Frost’, Pelargonium ×hortorum L.H. Bailey ‘Designer Bright Red’, and Petunia ×hybrida Vilm. ‘Suncatcher Midnight Blue’ were received from a commercial propagator and propagated in a glass-glazed greenhouse at 23 °C air and substrate temperature set points. After callusing (≈5 mol·m−2·d−1 for 7 days), cuttings were placed under 70 μmol·m−2·s−1 delivered from HPS lamps or LED arrays with varying proportions (%) of red:blue light (100:0, 85:15, or 70:30). After 14 days under supplemental lighting treatments, growth, morphology, and gas exchange of rooted cuttings were measured. There were no significant differences among Impatiens and Pelargonium cuttings grown under different supplemental light sources. However, compared with cuttings propagated under HPS lamps, stem length of Petunia cuttings grown under 100:0 red:blue LEDs was 11% shorter, whereas leaf dry mass, root dry mass, root mass ratios, and root:shoot ratio of cuttings grown under 70:30 red:blue LEDs were 15%, 36%, 17%, and 24% higher, respectively. Supplemental light source had minimal impact on plants after transplant. Our data suggest that LEDs are suitable replacements for HPS lamps as supplemental light sources during cutting propagation.
Our objectives in this study were to identify the flowering response of Kalanchoe spp. to photoperiodic treatments and characterize flowering and vegetative characteristics of flowering plants. Twenty vegetatively propagated Kalanchoe spp. were grown under one of four photoperiodic treatments: 1) short days (SD; 8-h photoperiod) for 16 weeks; 2) night interruption lighting (NI; 2000 to 0200 hr) for 16 weeks; 3) SD for 8 weeks then transferred to NI for 8 weeks; or 4) NI for 8 weeks then transferred to SD for 8 weeks. Kalanchoe beauvardii, K. behariensis, K. fedtschenkoi, K. longiflora, K. marmorata, K. marnieriana, K. streptantha, K. tomentosa, and K. vigueridoi did not flower under any treatment. Kalanchoe laetivirens and K. rosei had minimal flowering when exposed to NI followed by SD, whereas K. pumila had minimal flowering when exposed to SD followed by NI. Kalanchoe glaucescens, K. laciniata, K. manginii, K. nyikae, K. rotundifolia, K. uniflora, and K. velutina flowered when exposed to SD for 8 or 16 weeks, and node number below the inflorescence and days to first open flower for these species increased when NI preceded SD. Kalanchoe millotii flowered under a 16-week SD treatment only. No plants flowered when grown under only NI. We classified K. glaucescens, K. laciniata, K. manginii, K. millotii, K. nyikae, K. rotundifolia, K. uniflora, and K. velutina as obligate SD plants. Flower diameter, total flower number, total color index, shoot length, branch number, and leaf length and width varied among species. Based on these ornamental characteristics, we identified K. glaucescens, K. laciniata, K. manginii, K. nyikae, K. uniflora, and K. velutina as potential ornamental flowering potted plants.
During the propagation of herbaceous stem-tip cuttings, the photosynthetic daily light integral (DLI) inside greenhouses can be low (≈1–4 mol·m−2·d−1) during the winter and early spring when propagation typically occurs. The mechanisms by which cuttings adapt biomass allocation patterns, gas exchange, and starch accumulation in response to the photosynthetic DLI are not clearly understood. Our objectives were to quantify the impact of DLI on growth, photosynthesis, and carbohydrate concentration during the root development phase of cutting propagation. Petunia (Petunia ×hybrida ‘Suncatcher Midnight Blue’), geranium (Pelargonium ×hortorum ‘Fantasia Dark Red’), and new guinea impatiens (Impatiens hawkeri ‘Celebration Pink’) cuttings were propagated in a glass-glazed greenhouse with 23 °C air and substrate temperature set points. After callusing (≈5 mol·m−2·d−1 for 7 days), cuttings of each species were placed under either no shade or one of the two different fixed-woven shade cloths providing ≈38% or 86% shade with 16 hours of supplemental light for 14 days, resulting in DLIs of 13.0‒14.2, 5.5‒6.0, and 2.0‒2.4 mol·m−2·d−1, respectively. Leaf, stem, and root biomass accumulation increased linearly with DLI by up to 122% (geranium), 118% (petunia), and 211% (new guinea impatiens), as DLI increased by ≈11‒12 mol·m−2·d−1, while relative biomass allocation into roots increased under increasing DLI. Compared with cuttings rooted under low DLIs (2.0‒2.4 mol·m−2·d−1), cuttings of all three species generally had greater maximum gross photosynthesis under high DLIs (13.0‒14.2 mol·m−2·d−1) starting 5 or 8 days after transfer. Starch concentration increased with DLI by up to 946% (impatiens) during propagation. Taken together, the increased growth of cuttings appears to be a result of increased carbohydrate availability from elevated photosynthesis and/or photosynthetic capacity.
Our objective in this study was to identify the effects of the photosynthetic daily light integral (DLI) on growth and flowering of six kalanchoe (Kalanchoe) species: Kalanchoe glaucescens, christmas tree plant (K. laciniata), chandelier plant (K. manginii), shovel leaf kalanchoe (K. nyikae), common kalanchoe or nentabos (K. rotundifolia), and velvet leaf kalanchoe (K. velutina). Plants were grown under an 8-hour photoperiod with a DLI of 4.3, 8.6, or 17.2 mol·m−2·d−1. Node numbers below the terminal inflorescence on K. glaucescens, K. manginii, K. nyikae, and K. rotundifolia decreased as the DLI increased, whereas node numbers of K. laciniata and K. velutina were unaffected by DLI. Time to first open flower of K. glaucescens, K. nyikae, and K. rotundifolia was unaffected by the DLI, whereas increasing the DLI from 4.3 to 17.2 mol·m−2·d−1 reduced the time to first open flower of K. laciniata, K. manginii, and K. velutina. Total flowers for all species increased as the DLI exceeded 4.3 mol·m−2·d−1. Shoot heights of K. glaucescens and K. rotundifolia increased as the DLI increased from 4.3 to 8.6 mol·m−2·d−1, whereas shoot height of K. nyikae decreased as the DLI increased from 4.3 to 17.2 mol·m−2·d−1; shoot heights of K. laciniata, K. manginii and K. velutina were unaffected by DLI. Dry weight gain increased for all species as the DLI exceeded 4.3 mol·m−2·d−1.
The influence of pre-plant bulb dips in paclobutrazol solutions on final plant height, days to flower, and flower bud number were evaluated for easter lily (Lilium longiflorum). ‘Nellie White’ easter lily bulbs were placed in solutions of paclobutrazol containing 0, 30, 60, or 120 mg·L−1 for 15 min preceding planting. Days to flower and flower bud number were unaffected by paclobutrazol. Plant height at flowering for bulbs dipped in paclobutrazol solutions was 15% to 26% shorter compared with untreated bulbs. Additionally, dipping bulbs in 120 mg·L−1 paclobutrazol resulted in plants that met target height specifications for commercially grown easter lily. Based on these results, dipping easter lily bulbs in paclobutrazol solutions can be an effective strategy for reducing stem elongation without negatively impacting days to flower or flower bud number for commercially grown easter lily.