The inhibitor of ethylene perception, 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP), is the basis of a new technology that is increasingly being used to improve storage potential and maintain quality of fruit and vegetables. 1-MCP is registered for use on a number of crops, including apple, apricot, avocado, banana, broccoli, kiwifruit, pear, mango, melon, peach, nectarine, persimmon, plum, and tomato. The registered crop is often specific to country. The effects of 1-MCP on quality of these crops, as well as its effects on physiological disorders and pathological diseases, are reviewed. Most available literature on 1-MCP has focused on laboratory-based trials and little information exists about its effects on product quality at the commercial level. The apple is the most significant exception, being the first crop for which 1-MCP was used commercially and extensively around the world. The apple is a crop for which limited ripening after harvest is desirable. For many other fruit, successful commercialization of 1-MCP will require an appropriate balance between 1-MCP concentrations and exposure periods that will delay but not inhibit ripening. The effects of preharvest factors, cultivar, maturity, and postharvest practices are complex and will impact commercial success of 1-MCP-based technology. For leafy or nonfruit vegetables, the advantages of 1-MCP may only be apparent under abusive conditions such as high temperatures and exogenous ethylene exposure. Finally, commercial utilization of 1-MCP-based technology will be a function of the cost of its application relative to its benefits for each product.
Christopher B. Watkins
Christopher B. Watkins
The tolerances of horticultural commodities to CO2 are outlined, as are also the associated biochemical and physiological aspects of differences in tolerance between and within commodity types. These tolerances are related to responses to the use of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) during storage. Commodities vary widely in their responses to elevated CO2, and low tolerance to the gas limits its use to maintain quality in some cases. Standard recommendations are generally those established to extend the storage period of any given commodity as long as possible, and safe atmospheres may differ substantially for shorter term exposures used in MAP. Use of MAP for storage of minimally processed products represents an important example of this, as storage periods and quality attributes required for commercial marketing of cut products can be very different from those of the whole product. Factors such as cultivar and postharvest treatment before imposing high CO2 can influence responses of commodities to CO2, but are rarely considered in cultivar selection or in commercial application. A better understanding of the physiology and biochemistry of commodity responses to CO2 is required for increased use of MAP.
Mette Larsen and Christopher B. Watkins
Firmness and aroma composition of strawberry fruit (Fragaria ×ananassa Duch. cv. Pajaro) stored in air or treated with 20% CO2 for up to 12 days at 0C were analyzed upon removal from storage. Fruit firmness increased after 2 days in CO2, while the composition of aroma compounds in the fruit was unaffected at this time. Ethanol and ethyl hexanoate accumulated after 3 days during high CO2 treatment, but these compounds usually decreased during subsequent cold storage in air. Ethyl butanoate and ethyl acetate also accumulated but continued to increase after 6 and 9 days of CO2 storage, respectively. This study suggests that treatment of strawberry fruit with CO2 after harvest, followed by air storage at 0C, can maintain firmness while minimizing off-flavor development.
Terence L. Robinson* and Christopher B. Watkins
In 2001 and 2002, we imposed a wide range of croploads (0-15 fruits/cm2 of TCA) on 4- and 5-year-old Honeycrisp/M.9 trees by manual hand thinning soon after bloom to define appropriate croploads that give adequate repeat bloom and also the best fruit quality. At harvest each year we evaluated fruit ripening and quality. Samples were stored for 5 months in air at 38 °F and 33 °F and evaluated for fruit firmness and storage disorders. Cropload was negatively correlated with tree growth, return bloom, fruit size, fruit red color, fruit sugar content, fruit starch content, fruit firmness, fruit acidity, fruit bitter pit, fruit senescent breakdown, fruit rot and fruit superficial scald, but was positively correlated with leaf blotch symptoms, fruit internal ethylene concentration at harvest, and fruit soggy breakdown. There was a strong effect of cropload on fruit size up to a cropload 7, beyond which there was only a small additional effect. Although there was considerable variation in return bloom, a relatively low cropload was required to obtain adequate return bloom. Fruit red color was reduced only slightly up to a cropload of 8 beyond which it was reduced dramatically. The reduced fruit color and sugar content at high croploads could indicate a delay in maturity of but, fruits from high croploads were also softer, had less starch and greater internal ethylene. It that excessive croploads advance maturity. Overall, croploads greater than 10 resulted in no bloom the next year, and poor fruit size, color and flavor, but these fruits tended to have the least storage disorders. Moderate croploads (7-8) resulted in disappointing return bloom and mediocre fruit quality. For optimum quality and annual cropping, relatively low croploads of 4-5 were necessary.
Christopher B. Watkins and Kenneth J. Silsby
Occasional occurrence of a superficial skin injury associated with CA storage can cause severe commercial loss in the `Empire' cultivar in the northeast. To develop industry strategies to prevent losses due to the disorder, we have examined a number of factors related to its occurrence. 1) Fruit from six orchards were stored with 2% or 5% CO2 (with 2% O2) at 0.5 or 3°C for 6 or 9 months. Orchard variation in susceptibility was high. Preharvest factors such as maturity or mineral levels in the fruit did not account for these differences. Incidence of the disorder was much higher at 5% than at 2% CO2. However, temperature did not affect the extent of injury. 2) Exposure of fruit stored at 2% CO2/2% O2 to 5% CO2 at 4-week intervals from harvest until 20 weeks indicated that fruit were most susceptible to injury between 0 and 8 weeks. 3) A postharvest treatment with diphenylamine (DPA) prevented occurrence of the disorder, ethanol reduced it, but ascorbic acid had little effect. 4) Fruit were held at storage temperatures for up to 10 days before exposure to either 2% or 5% CO2. Injury was highest in fruit exposed one day after harvest and negligible when exposed after 10 days. Collectively the results indicate that rapid CA can aggravate the disorder if care is not taken to maintain low CO2 concentrations in the storage atmosphere but that use of DPA for control of superficial scald will prevent its occurrence.
William J. Bramlage and Christopher B. Watkins
Seeking non-chemical alternatives to use of DPA for scald control on apples, we interrupted storage with a brief warming period. This often reduces chilling injuries of fruit. Warming `Granny Smith apples for 5 days at 20 C after 2 weeks at 0 C reduced scald as effectively as a 1000 ppm DPA treatment at that time. To better characterize this response, we tested other timings of the warming period, and also lower warming temperature. Warming at 10 C, or for shorter times at 20 C, or after longer periods at 0 C all were less effective. Maintaining a warm period before storage was not effective. During warming of `Cortland' and `Delicious' apples softening and loss of green color occurred, the extent of which increased with warming time and usually was greater if the fruit had initiated the ethylene climacteric before warming.
Christopher B. Watkins and Jacqueline F. Nock
The effects of temperature during 1-MCP treatment, and the effects of delays of up to 8 d after harvest before treatment, have been investigated using `Cortland', `Delicious', `Jonagold', and `Empire' (normal and late harvest) apple [(Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill. var. domestica (Borkh.) Mansf.] cultivars stored in air for 2 and 4 months and in controlled atmosphere (CA) storage for 4 and 8 months. Fruit were treated with 1 μL·L–1 1-MCP for 24 hours on the day of harvest (warm) or after 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, or 8 days at cold storage temperatures. CA storage was established by day 10. Little effect of temperature during treatment (warm fruit on the day of harvest compared with cold fruit after 24 hours of cooling) was detected. Major interactions among cultivars, handling protocols before 1-MCP treatment, storage type and length of storage were observed. Delays of up to 8 days before 1-MCP treatment either did not affect efficacy of treatment, or markedly reduced it, depending on cultivar, storage type and length of storage. The results indicate that, depending on cultivar, the importance of minimizing the treatment delay increases as storage periods increase.
Thair F. Alwan and Christopher B. Watkins
Fruit of `Cortland', `Delicious' and `Law Rome' were warmed for 24 hours at 20°C either weekly, once every 2 weeks, or once every 3 weeks during storage. The effect of these treatments on fruit ripening and concentrations of alpha-farnesene and conjugated trienes in hexane extracts of the skin were measured during storage. Without warming, scald incidence of the cultivars was 70%, 14%, and 85%, respectively. Intermittent warming treatments resulted in a marked reduction of scald though effectiveness was affected by cultivar. In `Cortland', scald was reduced only by the weekly warming treatment (10%) as was less effective than DPA (1%). In `Delicious', all warming treatments were equally effective. In `Law Rome', weekly warming resulted in better control of scald (3%) than DPA (14%) and less frequent warming was proportionately less effective in controlling the disorder. Concentrations of conjugated trienes at 281 nm did not relate consistently to scald incidence after storage. However, ratios of conjugated trienes of 258 nm or 269 nm with 281 nm strongly support a hypothesis that non-toxic and toxic oxidation products of alpha-farnesene interact and influence the effectiveness of postharvest treatments on scald control (Du and Bramlage, 1993; JASHS 118:807-813). A hypothesis relating the interactions between ripening and scald development will be presented. Supported in part by USDA Specific Cooperative Agreement 58-1931-5-017.
Christopher B. Watkins and Jacqueline F. Nock
‘Honeycrisp’ is an apple [Malus xsylvestris (L.) Mill. var. domestica (Borkh.) Mansf.] that can be stored in air for several months, but the flavor becomes bland with prolonged storage. Controlled-atmosphere (CA) storage recommendations have not been made in some growing regions, however, because of the susceptibility of fruit to physiological disorders. In the first year of this study, we stored fruit from six orchards in O2 partial pressures (pO2) of 1.5, 3.0, and 4.5 kPa with 1.5 and 3.0 kPa pCO2. In the second year, we stored fruit from three orchards in three storage regimes (2.0/2.0, 3.0/1.5, 3.0/0.5 kPa O2/kPa CO2) with and without treatment of fruit with 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) at the beginning and end of the conditioning regime (10 °C for 7 days) that is commercially used for ‘Honeycrisp’. CA storage had little effect on flesh firmness, soluble solids concentration (SSC), and titratable acidity (TA) over the range of pO2 and pCO2 tested. Greasiness was generally lower in fruit stored in lower pO2 and higher pCO2. Susceptibility of fruit to core browning and senescent breakdown varied between years, but a high incidence of internal CO2 injury in fruit from some orchards occurred in both years. 1-MCP treatment decreased internal ethylene concentration (IEC) and sometimes maintained TA but had little effect on firmness and SSC. Senescent breakdown and core browning incidence were reduced by 1-MCP treatment where orchard susceptibility to these disorders was high. However, 1-MCP treatment sometimes increased internal CO2 injury, especially if treatment occurred at the beginning of the conditioning period. CA storage cannot be recommended for storage of New York-grown ‘Honeycrisp’ apples until management of CO2 injury can be assured.
Errol W. Hewett and Christopher B. Watkins
The incidence of external and internal bitter pit in `Cox's Orange Pippin' apple (Malus domestics Borkh.) fruit sprayed with normal therapeutic sprays either with or without Ca salts at 2-week intervals during the growing season was determined after 6 weeks of storage over 7 consecutive years. Following harvest, fruit was either vacuum-infiltrated with CaCI2 or received no further treatment. Although there was a tendency for fruit that had been sprayed and vacuum-infiltrated with Ca to exhibit the greatest degree of bitter pit control, this treatment was not significantly superior to Ca sprays alone. Vacuum infiltration alone reduced the disorder to a lesser extent than Ca sprays and was more effective in reducing external than internal bitter bit. The results suggest that Ca applications over the growing season are superior to postharvest vacuum-infiltration with Ca in the prevention of bitter pit.