Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 3 of 3 items for

  • Author or Editor: Christopher A. Proctor x
  • All content x
Clear All Modify Search
Free access

Christopher A. Proctor and Zachary J. Reicher

Common purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.) can be problematic in thin turf, along sidewalks and drives, and especially during turfgrass establishment. Little published research exists evaluating herbicides that will control purslane and are also labeled for turfgrass. Thus, our objective was to evaluate the efficacy of preemergence (PRE) or postemergence (POST) herbicides labeled for use in turf for controlling purslane. Experiments were conducted once in 2011 and twice in 2012 to evaluate nine PRE herbicides at one-half maximum and maximum label rates applied over immature perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.). The PRE herbicides isoxaben and simazine consistently resulted in the best purslane control for all three PRE experiments. Experiments in 2011 and 2012 evaluated 25 POST herbicides at full label rates applied to mature purslane plants. The POST herbicides fluroxypyr, triclopyr, and metsulfuron-methyl were most effective in controlling purslane.

Free access

Christopher A. Proctor, Daniel V. Weisenberger, and Zachary J. Reicher

Mixtures of turfgrass seed are commonly used to establish lawns, with kentucky bluegrass (KBG) and perennial ryegrass (PRG) comprising two of the more commonly used species. In the humid regions of the Midwest United States, KBG is a desirable species, but slow germination makes it difficult to establish compared with PRG. The objective of our study was to evaluate establishment rate and species composition over 3 years of a turf stand seeded with different ratios of KBG and PRG (wt:wt) maintained as a lawn. Repeat experiments were initiated in 2007 and 2008 and conducted for 3 years in West Lafayette, IN, with seed mixtures of KBG:PRG of 100:0, 90:10, 80:20, 70:30, 50:50, and 0:100 wt:wt of pure live seed. Plots were seeded late August each year and percent turfgrass cover was rated up to 6 weeks after seeding (WAS). To evaluate stand composition after establishment, percent KBG cover was rated annually in August for 3 years using transect counts after selective removal of PRG with the herbicide chlorsulfuron. Likely as a result of greater crabgrass (Digiaria sp.) competition during establishment in 2007, 100% PRG, 50:50, 70:30, or 80:20 KBG:PRG ratio had the highest percentage turf cover at 6 WAS, whereas there was no difference between treatments at 6 WAS in 2008 when crabgrass competition was lower. Regardless of turf cover during establishment, all treatments except 100% PRG shifted to greater than 95% KBG cover by 3 years after establishment. For the region in which our study was conducted, it may be desirable to seed with a higher proportion (greater than 50%) of PRG to speed initial establishment for customer satisfaction, erosion control, and/or to offset years with high weed pressure. Under lawn conditions similar to our study, seeding ratios with high KBG (80:20 or 90:10 KBG:PRG) will likely shift to a stand composition of greater than 95% KBG within 2 years, whereas all other ratios lower in KBG will likely shift similarly within 3 years. Chemical names used: 2-chloro-N-{[(4-methoxy-6-methyl-1,3,5-triazin-2 yl)amino]carbonyl}benzenesulfonamide (chlorsulfuron)

Free access

Christopher A. Proctor, Matt D. Sousek, Aaron J. Patton, Daniel V. Weisenberger, and Zachary J. Reicher

Preemergence (PRE) herbicides are used to control crabgrass (Digitaria spp.). Single spring applications are common in areas with relatively low crabgrass pressure, whereas sequential applications often are used to extend control in locations with high crabgrass pressure. Our objectives were to determine if changing a.i. in initial and sequential applications affects crabgrass control and if single spring applications of tank-mixed PRE herbicides provide season-long crabgrass control. Studies were conducted 2009, 2010, and 2011 in West Lafayette, IN, and 2011 in Wymore, NE. The PRE herbicides prodiamine, pendimethalin, and dithiopyr were tested using different application strategies. Sequential applications were applied mid-April and mid-June using all possible combinations of the three herbicides and untreated for the initial and sequential application. These herbicides also were applied mid-April as single full-rate PRE application or as a tank mixture of two PRE herbicides at half-plus-half or half-plus-quarter rate. Season-long crabgrass control was consistently achieved using sequential applications regardless which of the three herbicides was used for initial or sequential applications. Single applications of tank mixtures also provided consistent crabgrass control, equivalent to single full-rate applications of the individual PRE herbicides. Tank mixtures of half-plus-quarter rate and single half-rate applications resulted in more crabgrass cover than single full-rate or half-plus-half rate applications regardless of the herbicide applied.