Hollow tine cultivation is a routine practice on golf course putting greens, where the tine entry angle normally is 90°. Effects of various tine entry angles impacting putting green surfaces have not been investigated. The hypothesis was that different tine entry angles during cultivation would impact a greater area of the soil profile by enhancing water infiltration rates, reducing localized dry spots, and enhancing turf quality. Therefore, a 2-year field study in 2003 and 2004 was conducted to determine the impact of core cultivation tine entry angle on `Crenshaw' creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stoloniferous var. palustris). Treatments included three angles of hollow tine entry at 50°, 70°, and 90° and an untreated plot without cultivation. Manual cultivators consisted of four 1/4-inch- and 1/2-inch-diameter hollow tines 3 inches in length, spaced 2 inches apart. Treatment applications were in April, May, September, and October. Measurements included visual turfgrass quality (TQ), molarity ethanol droplet test (MED), and water infiltration. No treatment (control, 50°, 70°, 90°) effects in years I and II for TQ were noted. MED scores in May were 23% higher than in August and September. Tines of 1/2-inch diameter reduced soil hydrophobicity (MED) 6% compared to tines of 1/4-inch-diameter tines. Tines of 50°, 70°, and 90° had 129%, 163%, and 211% greater water infiltration than the untreated, respectively.
Christian M. Baldwin, Haibo Liu and Philip J. Brown
Christian M. Baldwin, A. Douglas Brede and Jami J. Mayer
Incorporating the use of glyphosate into a weed management program offers turfgrass managers increased flexibility and cost savings when attempting to control troublesome weeds such as annual bluegrass (ABG) (Poa annua L.). Field trials of glyphosate tolerant perennial ryegrass (PRG) (Lolium perenne L.) cultivars, JS501 and Replay, were initiated to determine glyphosate tolerance and rates required for ABG control. In the tolerance trial, glyphosate was applied on 15 Sept. 2010 and 9 Aug. 2011 at rates of 0, 0.29, 0.58, 1.16, 1.74, 2.32, and 3.48 kg·ha−1 a.e. Glufosinate was also applied at 0, 1.68, and 3.37 kg·ha−1 a.i. In the ABG control trial, glyphosate was applied on 17 June followed by 19 Aug. 2009 and 25 June followed by 25 Aug. 2010 at rates of 0, 0.15, 0.29, 0.44, and 0.58 kg·ha−1 a.e. In the tolerance trial, linear regression analysis revealed a glyphosate application rate of 0.81 kg·ha−1 a.e. was required to cause 20% leaf firing. By the end of the trial, the highest rate of glufosinate resulted in nearly complete desiccation of ‘Replay’ PRG. For ABG control, after four glyphosate applications over a 2-year period, a rate of 0.29 kg·ha−1 a.e. or greater resulted in less than 10% ABG. Untreated plots had ≈83% ABG infestation. Discoloration was not noted for either PRG cultivar at any point over the 2-year trial period. Based on the environmental conditions of each trial, results suggest a recommended application rate should be 0.29 kg·ha−1 a.e. during summer months. This rate is sufficient for ABG control and also provides protection in case spray overlap occurs during an application.
Christian M. Baldwin, A. Douglas Brede and Jami J. Mayer
With the emergence of glyphosate-tolerant cultivars, identifying management strategies not applicable with older cultivars need to be revisited. Objectives of these research trials were to quantify the growth regulation effects following a glyphosate application and to determine the safety of tank mixing glyphosate with another herbicide, various nitrogen (N) sources, and a plant growth regulator (PGR) on a glyphosate-tolerant perennial ryegrass [PRG (Lolium perenne L.)] cultivar, Replay. In the growth regulation trial, glyphosate was applied at 0 to 1.03 lb/acre, whereas PGRs flurpimidol, trinexapac-ethyl, paclobutrazol, and trinexapac-ethyl + flurpimidol were applied at 0.50, 0.18, 0.37, and 0.09 + 0.22 lb/acre, respectively, on 15 July 2010 and 2 Aug. 2012. In the tank mixing trial, dicamba (0.50 lb/acre), urea (15 lb/acre N), and ammonium sulfate [AMS (15 lb/acre N)] were applied alone or tank mixed with glyphosate at 0 to 0.52 lb/acre. Tank mixing urea with glyphosate had minimal effect on PRG color, while adding AMS consistently improved color at the highest glyphosate rate of 0.52 lb/acre. Twenty days following a glyphosate application, only rates >0.40 lb/acre resulted in significant growth regulation compared with untreated plots. This study indicates that tank mixing glyphosate with another herbicide, a PGR, and various N sources appear safe to the glyphosate-tolerant PRG cultivar. Also, the growth regulating effects of glyphosate applications would serve as an additional benefit to annual bluegrass (Poa annua L.) control reported in previous trials.
Christian M. Baldwin, Eugene K. Blythe, A. Douglas Brede, Jami J. Mayer and R. Golembiewski
The use of glyphosate-tolerant perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) (PRG) cultivars JS501 and Replay provides turfgrass managers a unique option for annual bluegrass (Poa annua L.) (ABG) control. Both cultivars can tolerate a maximum glyphosate rate of 0.81 kg·ha−1 acid equivalent (a.e.) after establishment under optimal growing temperatures (16 to 24 °C). However, tolerance to applications made immediately after germination and during low air temperatures has received limited investigation. Therefore, objectives of this research were to determine the seedling tolerance and low-temperature response after a fall season glyphosate application to both cultivars. Field trials were conducted in Idaho and Oregon. For the fall application response trial in Idaho, glyphosate was applied at 0, 0.15, 0.29, 0.58, 1.16, 1.74, 2.32, and 3.48 kg·ha−1 a.e. In Oregon, glyphosate was applied at 0, 0.15, 0.29, 0.44, 0.58, 1.16, and 3.48 kg·ha−1 a.e. At both sites, applications were made between late September and early October. To determine seedling tolerance, both cultivars were sprayed with glyphosate at the one-leaf stage (LS), two LS, three LS, or four LS at rates of 0, 0.15, 0.29, and 0.58 kg·ha−1 a.e. Across all trials, ratings included PRG color, cover, and injury. At both trial locations, regression analysis revealed a rate of ≈0.27 kg·ha−1 a.e. was required to cause 20% leaf firing in the fall application response trial. In the seedling tolerance trial, glyphosate applied at 0.58 kg·ha−1 a.e. at the one LS, two LS, and three LS had color ratings 8.0 or greater; however, color ratings dropped to 4.6 when an application was made at the four LS. Based on the environmental conditions of each trial, results suggest glyphosate applications greater than 0.27 kg·ha−1 a.e. as minimum air temperatures approach 0 °C should be avoided. Also, applications should be avoided at the three to four LS if the application rate is greater than 0.29 kg·ha−1 a.e.
Christian M. Baldwin, Haibo Liu, Lambert B. McCarty, William L. Bauerle and Joe E. Toler
Studies on bermudagrasses (Cynodon spp.) have demonstrated variability in salinity response among species and cultivars. However, information on ultradwarf bermudagrass cultivars in relative salinity tolerance associated with trinexapac-ethyl (TE) [4-(cyclopropyl-α-hydroxy-methylene)-3,5-dioxocyclohexanecarboxylic acid ethyl ester], a cyclohexanedione type II plant growth regulator (PGR), remains unknown. Therefore, two replicated greenhouse studies were conducted to determine the salinity tolerance of two ultradwarf bermudagrass cultivars treated with TE on turfgrass quality (TQ), total root biomass, and root and shoot tissue nutrient concentration. Turfgrasses included `TifEagle' and `Champion' bermudagrass (Cynodondactylon(L.) Pers. × C. transvaalensisBurtt-Davy). Daily sodium chloride (NaCl) exposure was 0, 12.90 (8,000 ppm), 25.80 (16,000 ppm), and 38.71 dS·m–1 (24,000 ppm). Biweekly TE applications (active ingredient 0.02 kg·ha–1) were initiated 2 weeks after salinity exposure. `Champion' was more salt-tolerant than `TifEagle' based on TQ and root mass. At 12.90, 25.80, and 38.71 dS·m–1 of NaCl, nontreated (without TE) `Champion' consistently outperformed nontreated `TifEagle' with greater TQ on most rating dates. At 12.90 dS·m–1, TE treated `Champion' (8.0) had greater TQ than nontreated `TifEagle' (6.1) at week 10. Regardless of TE application, after 2 weeks of applying 25.80 dS·m–1 of NaCl, both cultivars fell below acceptable TQ (<7). When averaged across all salinity treatments, applying TE four times at 0.02 kg·a.i./ha in two week intervals enhanced root growth for both bermudagrass cultivars by 25%. Also, both cultivars decreased root mass as salinity levels increased. Non TE-treated `TifEagle' had 56% and 40% less root and shoot Na uptake compared to TE treated cultivars at 25.80 dS·m–1. In conclusion, the two bermudagrass cultivars responded differently when exposed to moderate levels of NaCl.
Christian M. Baldwin, Haibo Liu, Lambert B. McCarty, Hong Luo, Joe Toler and Steven H. Long
Creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera var. palustris Huds.) is desirable as a putting green turfgrass in the transition zone as a result of year-round green color, ball roll, and playability. However, management challenges exist for bentgrass greens, including winter temperature fluctuations. Frosts often cause cancellations or delays of tee time resulting in lost revenue. In response to this winter golf course management issue, a research project was initiated at Clemson University from 1 Dec. 2005 and 2006 to 1 Aug. 2006 and 2007 on a ‘L93’ creeping bentgrass putting green to determine the impacts of foot traffic or mower traffic and time of traffic application on bentgrass winter performance. Treatments consisted of no traffic (control), foot traffic, and walk-behind mower traffic (rolling) at 0700 and 0900 hr when canopy temperatures were at or below 0 °C. Foot traffic included ≈75 steps within each plot using size 10 SP-4 Saddle Nike golf shoes (soft-spiked sole) administered by a researcher weighing ≈75 kg. A Toro Greensmaster 800 walk-behind greens mower weighing 92 kg with a 45.7-cm roller was used for rolling traffic. Data collected included canopy and soil temperatures (7.6 cm depth), visual turfgrass quality (TQ), clipping yield (g·m−2), shoot chlorophyll concentration (mg·g−1), root total nonstructural carbohydrates (TNC) (mg·g−1), soil bulk density (g·cm−3), and water infiltration rates (cm·h−1). Time and type of traffic significantly influenced bentgrass winter performance. On all TQ rating dates, 0700 hr rolling traffic decreased TQ by ≈1.1 units compared with foot traffic at 0700 hr. In December, regardless of traffic application time, rolling traffic reduced bentgrass shoot growth ≈17%. However, in February, chlorophyll, soil bulk density, and water infiltration differences were not detected. By the end of March, all treatments had acceptable TQ. Root TNC was unaffected in May, whereas shoot chlorophyll concentrations were unaffected in May and August. This study indicates bentgrass damage resulting from winter traffic is limited to winter and early spring months and full recovery should be expected by summer.
Christian M. Baldwin, Haibo Liu, Lambert B. McCarty, Hong Luo and Joe E. Toler
Seasonal variations in temperature and solar radiation in the warm climatic region of the transition zone increase difficulty of creeping bentgrass [Agrostis stolonifera var. palustris (Huds.)] management throughout the year. The impact of winter shade on bentgrass quality and subsequent residual effects of winter shade in spring and summer months has not been investigated. Therefore, a 2-year field study investigated trinexapac-ethyl (TE) [4-(cyclopropyl-α-hydroxy-methylene)-3,5-dioxy-cyclohexanecarboxylic acid ethyl ester] as a winter management strategy to alleviate winter shade stress and determined the winter shade tolerance of ‘L-93’ creeping bentgrass under various reduced light environments. Treatments included a full-sunlight control; 58% and 96% morning, afternoon, and full-day shade artificial; and TE (0.02 kg a.i./ha) applied every 2 weeks from December to July. Data collection included daily light measurements (photosynthetic photon flux density), monthly canopy and soil temperatures, visual turfgrass quality (TQ), chlorophyll concentration, clipping yield, total root biomass, and total root nonstructural carbohydrates. Under 96% shade, canopy temperatures were reduced ≈57% from December to February, whereas soil temperatures were reduced 39% in February compared with full sunlight. Afternoon shade (58%) maintained acceptable TQ throughout winter for both years. Applying TE every 2 weeks in the winter negatively impacted bentgrass quality; however, TE enhanced spring and summer quality. Morning or afternoon shade minimally impacted parameters measured. Overall, moderate winter shade may not limit ‘L-93’ creeping bentgrass performance as a putting green in the transition zone. Results suggest winter shade does not contribute to creeping bentgrass summer decline because all shade-treated plots fully recovered from shade damage in spring months.
Jordan M. Craft, Christian M. Baldwin, Wayne H. Philley, James D. McCurdy, Barry R. Stewart, Maria Tomaso-Peterson and Eugene K. Blythe
Traditional hollow-tine (HT) aerification programs can cause substantial damage to the putting green surface resulting in prolonged recovery. Despite the growing interest in new and alternative aerification technology, there is a lack of information in the literature comparing new or alternative technology with traditional methods on ultradwarf bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. × C. transvaalensis (Burtt-Davy)] putting greens. Therefore, the objective of this research was to determine the best combination of dry-injection (DI) cultivation technology with modified traditional HT aerification programs to achieve minimal surface disruption without a compromise in soil physical properties. Research was conducted at the Mississippi State University golf course practice putting green from 1 June to 31 Aug. 2014 and 2015. Treatments included two HT sizes (0.6 and 1.3 cm diameter), various DI cultivation frequencies applied with a DryJect 4800, and a noncultivated control. The HT 1.3 cm diameter tine size had 76% greater water infiltration (7.6 cm depth) compared with the DI + HT 0.6 cm diameter tine size treatment. However, DI + HT 0.6 cm diameter tine size had greater water infiltration at the 10.1 cm depth than the noncultivated control. Results suggest a need for an annual HT aerification event due to reduced water infiltration and increased volumetric water content (VWC) in the noncultivated control treatment. It can be concluded that DI would be best used in combination with HT 1.3 or 0.6 cm diameter tine sizes to improve soil physical properties; however, the DI + HT 0.6 cm diameter tine size treatment resulted in minimum surface disruption while still improving soil physical properties compared with the noncultivated control.
Gregg C. Munshaw, Jeffery S. Beasley, Christian M. Baldwin, Justin Q. Moss, Kenneth L. Cropper, H. Wayne Philley, Chrissie A. Segars and Barry R. Stewart
Hybrid bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon × Cynodon transvaalensis] is frequently used throughout the southern and transitional climatic zones of the United States. These grasses can only be vegetatively propagated, such as by sprigging. Turf managers will often apply high rates of sprigs and nitrogen (N) in an attempt to minimize the time to establishment. However, little is known about how planting and N rates affect establishment. The objective of this study was to determine optimum sprigging and N rates during the establishment of ‘Latitude 36’ hybrid bermudagrass to minimize time to full surface cover. The study was conducted in four locations across the southern United States during Summer 2015. Sprigging rates consisted of 200, 400, 600, and 800 U.S. bushels/acre (9.3 gal/bushel), and N rates were 0, 11, 22, and 44 lb/acre N per week. Results showed that as the N rate increased, percent cover generally increased but only slightly [7% difference between high and low rates 5 weeks after planting (WAP)]. The effect of sprig rate on percent cover indicated that as rate increased, cover also increased. Differences in establishment due to sprig rate were present until 6 WAP at which time all plots achieved 100% cover. The greatest difference between N and sprig rate was that sprig rate showed differences in percent cover immediately, whereas N rate differences were not apparent until 2 WAP. Increasing sprig rather than N rate should be considered to speed up establishment.
Erick G. Begitschke, James D. McCurdy, Te-Ming Tseng, T. Casey Barickman, Barry R. Stewart, Christian M. Baldwin, Michael P. Richard and Maria Tomaso-Peterson
Preemergence herbicides generally have a negative effect on hybrid bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. × C. transvaalensis Burtt-Davy] establishment. However, little is known about the effect they have on root architecture and development. Research was conducted to determine the effects of commonly used preemergence herbicides on ‘Latitude 36’ hybrid bermudagrass root architecture and establishment. The experiment was conducted in a climate-controlled greenhouse maintained at 26 °C day/night temperature at Mississippi State University in Starkville, MS, from Apr. 2016 to June 2016 and repeated from July 2016 to Sept. 2016. Hybrid bermudagrass plugs (31.6 cm2) were planted in 126-cm2 pots (1120 cm3) and preemergence herbicide treatments were applied 1 d after planting at the recommended labeled rate for each herbicide. Preemergence herbicide treatments included atrazine, atrazine + S-metolachlor, dithiopyr, flumioxazin, indaziflam, liquid and granular applied oxadiazon, S-metolachlor, pendimethalin, prodiamine, and simazine. Treatments were arranged in a completely randomized design with four replications. Plugs treated with indaziflam and liquid applied oxadiazon failed to achieve 50% hybrid bermudagrass cover by the end of the experiment. Of the remaining herbicide treatments, all herbicides other than granular applied oxadiazon and atrazine increased the number of days required to reach 50% cover (Days50). In addition, all herbicide treatments reduced root mass when harvested 6 weeks after treatment (WAT) relative to the nontreated. By 10 WAT, all treatments reduced root mass in run 1, but during run 2, only prodiamine, pendimethalin, simazine, atrazine + S-metolachlor, liquid applied oxadiazon, and indaziflam reduced dry root mass compared with the nontreated. At 4 WAT, all treatments other than simazine and granular applied oxadiazon reduced root length when compared with the nontreated. By 10 WAT, only dithiopyr, S-metolachlor alone, and indaziflam reduced root length when compared with the nontreated. No differences were detected in the total amounts of nonstarch nonstructural carbohydrates (TNSC) within the roots in either run of the experiment. Results suggest that indaziflam, dithiopyr, and S-metolachlor are not safe on newly established hybrid bermudagrass and should be avoided during establishment. For all other treatments, hybrid bermudagrass roots were able to recover from initial herbicidal injury by 10 WAT; however, future research should evaluate tensile strength of treated sod.