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  • Author or Editor: Christi M. Heintz x
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Abstract

While some of the quality attributes, such as color and texture, of fresh horticultural crops can be measured by objective methods, accurate determination of flavor quality requires the use of subjective methods, i.e., sensory evaluation procedures. These include use of laboratory panels for detecting and describing differences among samples and use of consumer panels for indicating quality preferences. The proper use of such techniques involves following specific procedures for each sensory evaluation test as described in this article.

Open Access

Abstract

Large variations in flesh color, firmness, and composition were found among fresh and canned fruits of 8 clingstone peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] genotypes. Flesh color and titratable acidity of fresh fruits were highly correlated with color and sourness of canned fruits, respectively. Sweetness and peach flavor intensity were highly correlated in canned fruits. Genotypic variations in sensory sweetness and peach flavor intensity were not influenced by maturity stage, but variations in sensory sourness and firmness were dependent upon fruit maturity. For all cultivars, picking fruits more mature resulted in higher color and flavor quality of the canned product. Advanced maturity at harvest was accompanied by decreased flesh firmness, green color, and titratable acidity as well as more intense yellow or orange-yellow flesh color, higher carotenoids, ascorbic acid, soluble solids content, and SSC/TA ratio. As much as 42% of the total carotenoids and 95% of the total ascorbic acid were lost during the canning process.

Open Access

Abstract

The chemical composition and sensory attributes of pistachio nuts (Pistacia vera L.) were studied in relation to genotype, production area, maturity, moisture content, degree of shell staining, and storage conditions. ‘Kerman’ kernals were rated higher in firmness and sweetness, and lower in crispness, bitterness, and rancidity than those of the ‘Red Aleppo’, ‘Trabonella’, and ‘Bronte’ cultivars. Differences in composition and flavor of ‘Kerman’ pistachios harvested from 3 production areas were small. Nuts harvested at near optimum maturity were superior in quality to those harvested earlier or later. Drying nuts to 4–6% moisture levels resulted in the best quality. Shell staining did not influence eating quality of kernels but detrimentally affected shell appearance. Dried pistachio nuts can be kept for 12 months at 20°C. Moisture content influenced crispness and firmness while total sugars content was related to sweetness and overall flavor intensity.

Open Access

Abstract

As the pistachio (Pistacia vera L. cv. Kerman) nut matured, kernel moisture, respiration rate, and total protein content decreased, while kernel dry weight increased. At optimum maturity, ether-extractable fat and total sugar contents reached a peak. Either or both of these constituents may be useful as a maturity index, in addition to ease of hull separation, to determine optimum harvest date for pistachio nuts. Nut quality was acceptable for harvest during a 2- to 3-week period bracketing the time when the hull separates easily from the shell. Compositional analyses of hulls indicated some limitations on their potential use as animal feed.

Open Access