Black root rot (BRR) is a widespread disease of strawberry (Fragari×ananassa Duchnesne) that causes the death of feeder roots and the degradation of structural roots. The major causal organisms of BRR include Rhizoctonia fragariae Husain and W.E. McKeen, Pythium Pringsh., and Pratylenchus penetrans (Cobb) Filipjev and Schuurmans Stekhoven. The current method of control for black root rot is methyl-bromide fumigation; however, methyl bromide is scheduled to be phased out in 2005, and its effects are short-lived in matted-row systems. The objectives of the study were to measure levels of tolerance to BRR in 20 strawberry genotypes and to determine which pathogens were present in the soil. The genotypes were planted in four blocks each of methyl-bromide fumigated and nonfumigated soil, and were evaluated for crown number, number of flowers per crown, yield, and average berry weight over 2 years. The results showed that all three pathogens were present in the field, and that there was a significant genotype × fumigation interaction for yield and crown number in both years. The cultivars Bounty, Cabot, and Cavendish, all released from the breeding program in Nova Scotia, displayed tolerance to the pathogens that cause BRR.
Chrislyn A. Particka and James F. Hancock
Chrislyn A. Particka, Eric T. Stafne, and Timothy E. Martinson
Webinars have become an important aspect of many extension outreach programs, especially for large research projects that cover wide geographic regions. Evaluation of webinar impact is important to funders and stakeholders alike. Surveys to gather direct and indirect data can be used to evaluate webinars for their overall utility. The results can inform funders of program success and also serve as an indicator of the continued viability of webinar programming for extension audiences. The Northern Grapes Project administered a webinar series on topics related to grape (Vitis sp.) and wine production from 2012 through 2016. Thirty webinars were delivered to an audience of 3083, with nearly an additional 2400 views of recorded webinars. To estimate the value of the series, we modified two models, one that estimated viewer time investment and one that calculated the “green savings.” In addition, we surveyed webinar participants, asking them how much they would pay to watch a live webinar and access the archives, as well as how much money they had earned and/or saved from the information presented. Together, the models and survey indicated a webinar series value of nearly $3.4 million.