Seasonal patterns in freezing tolerance of five Rhododendron cultivars that vary in feezing tolerance were estimated. Electrolyte leakage was used, and raw leakage data were transformed to percent leakage, percent injury, and percent adjusted injury. These data were compared with visual estimates of injury. Percent adjusted injury was highly correlated (0.753) to visual estimates. Two asymmetric sigmoid functions—Richards and Gompertz—were fitted to the seasonal percent adjusted injury data for all cultivars. Two quantitative measures of leaf freezing tolerance—Lt50 and Tmax (temperature at maximum rate of injury)—were estimated from the fitted sigmoidal curves. When compared to the General Linear Model, the Gompertz function had a better fit (lower mean error sum of squares) than Richards function. Correlation analysis of all freezing tolerance estimates made by Gompertz and Richards functions with visual LT50 revealed similar closeness (0.77 to 0.79). However, the Gompertz function and Tmax were selected as the criteria for comparing relative freezing tolerance among cultivars due to the better data fitting of Gompertz function (than Richards) and more descriptive physiological representation of Tmax (than LT50). Based on the Tmax (°C) values at maximum cold acclimation of respective cultivars, we ranked `Autumn Gold' and `Grumpy Yellow' in the relatively tender group, `Vulcan's Flame' in intermediate group, and `Chionoides' and `Roseum Elegans' in the hardy group. These relative rankings are consistent with midwinter bud hardiness values reported by nurseries.
Chon C. Lim, Rajeev Arora, and Edwin C. Townsend
Chon C. Lim, Rajeev Arora, and Stephen L. Krebs
Few genetic studies have been conducted on the inheritance of cold hardiness (CH) in woody plants. An understanding of the genetic control of CH can greatly assist the breeder in reducing winter injury. This study was initiated to evaluate the distribution of CH phenotypes in segregating populations of evergreen rhododendrons. Naturally acclimated leaves from individual plants (parents, F1 and 47 F2 progeny) were subjected to controlled freeze–thaw regimes. Using slow cooling rates, leaf discs were cooled over a range of treatment temperatures from –10°C to –52°C. Freezing injury of leaf tissue was assessed by measuring ion-leakage and non-linear regression analysis (data fitted to Gompertz functions) was used to estimate Tmax, the temperature causing the maximum rate of injury. Tmax for the parent plants (R. catawbiense & R. fortunei) and the F1 cultivar Ceylon, were estimated to be –51.6°C, –30.1°C, and –40.4°C, respectively. CH estimates among F2 progeny (Ceylon, selfed) were normally distributed from –14.8°C to –41.5°C, with mean of –27.6°C. Most F2 progeny were less cold-hardy than the tender parent, R. fortunei. The apparent reduction in F2 CH may be caused by the differences in age between the parents (20-year-old mature plants) and F2 progenies (3-year-old juvenile seedlings). Currently, we are testing age-dependent CH responses in rhododendrons, and are also characterizing CH distributions in a backcross population.
Chon C. Lim, Rajeev Arora, and Stephen L. Krebs
Winter survival in woody plants is controlled by environmental and genetic factors that affect the plant's ability to cold-acclimate. A juvenile period in woody perennials raises the possibility of differences in cold-acclimating ability between juvenile vs. mature (flowering) phases. This study investigated the yearly cold hardiness (CH) changes of rhododendron populations and examined the relationship between leaf freezing tolerance (LFT) and physiological aging. Naturally acclimated leaves (January) from individual plants (parents-R. catawbiense and R. fortunei, F1, F2, and backcross) and F1 population generated from R. catawbiense and R. dichroanthum cross were subjected to controlled freeze-thaw regimes. LFT was assessed by measuring freeze-thaw-induced ion leakage from leaf discs frozen over a range of treatment temperatures. Data were then plotted with a sigmoidal (Gompertz) curve by SAS, to estimate Tmax—the temperature causing maximum rate of injury. Tmax for the 30- to 40-year-old parental plants (catawbiense, fortunei, and dichroanthum) and the F1 `Ceylon' (catawbiense × fortunei) were estimated to be about -52, -32, -16, and -43 °C, respectively. These values were consistent over the 3-year evaluation period. Data indicated the F2 (50 seedlings) and backcross (20 seedlings) populations exhibited significant, yearly Tmax increment (of ≈5-6 °C) from 1996 to 1998 as they aged from 3 to 5 years old. A similar yearly increase was observed in the 12 F1 progenies (compared 2 to 3 years old) of catawbiense × dichroanthum cross. The feasibility of identifying hardy phenotypes at juvenile period and research implications of age-dependent changes in CH will be discussed.
Hatice Gulen, Chon C. Lim, Rajeev Arora, Hatice Gulen, Ali Kuden, Stephen L. Krebs, and Joseph Postman
The similarity or differences of peroxidase isozymes in rootstocks and scions may influence their graft compatibility. This study was conducted to identify peroxidase isozymes and/or other proteins that may be used as markers to predict compatibility between pear and various quince clones. `Bartlett' (BT) and `Beurre Hardy' (BH) pear cultivars were budded on 13 selected quince clones and quince A (QA) rootstocks; BT and BH cultivars are known to be incompatible and compatible, respectively, with quince root stocks. Bark and cambial tissues were taken from unbudded rootstocks, scions, and 4 cm above and below the graft union for isozyme analysis. Samples were collected 1, 2, 3, and 12 months after grafting. In addition, samples from the graft unions were also analyzed 12 months after grafting. Isozyme separation was performed by starch gel electrophoresis. Many isozyme bands were commonly observed in the two scions; however, one anodal peroxidase was detected in BH but not in BT samples. This isozyme was also detected in QA and in all but four quince clones. Protein profiles of bark tissues from QA and three pear scions (BT, `Bosc', and P. crassane) were determined using SDS-PAGE. In general, protein profiles of the three pear cultivars appeared remarkably similar; however, P. crassane (a compatible pear cultivar on QA) had a 63 kDa protein, which was absent in BT and faintly observed in `Bosc' (intermediate compatibility). Our results suggest that these isoperoxidase and polypeptide could be associated with pear/quince graft compatibility.