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China F. Lunde, Shawn A. Mehlenbacher and David C. Smith

Ninety hazelnut (Corylus sp.) genotypes were surveyed for response to the eastern filbert blight pathogen [Anisogramma anomala (Peck) E. Müller] following greenhouse inoculation using a combination of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and visual inspection for cankers. Most were cultivars of the European hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) and a few were interspecific hybrids. Six genotypes did not display signs of the pathogen or symptoms of disease: `Closca Molla', `Ratoli', `Yoder #5', `Potomac', `Medium Long', and `Grand Traverse'. `Closca Molla' and `Ratoli', both minor Spanish cultivars, are superior in many respects to `Gasaway', which has been extensively used as a completely resistant parent in breeding. `Potomac' and `Yoder #5' have C. americana Marsh. in their pedigrees, `Grand Traverse' is one-quarter C. colurna, and the origin of `Medium Long' is uncertain. The random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) marker generated by primer UBC 152, which is linked to the single dominant resistance gene of `Gasaway', is absent in these six genotypes, and thus they appear to be novel sources of genetic resistance to this devastating disease.

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China F. Lunde, Shawn A. Mehlenbacher and David C. Smith

Eastern filbert blight (EFB), caused by the fungus Anisogramma anomala (Peck) E. Müller, is an important disease of european hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) in the Pacific northwestern United States. In 1989, a chance seedling free of EFB was discovered adjacent to a severely diseased orchard near Troutdale, Ore. This selection, subsequently named `Zimmerman', was crossed with three susceptible selections. Based on morphological characters and incompatibility alleles, we speculated that `Zimmerman' (S1 S3) was a hybrid between `Barcelona' (S1 S2) and `Gasaway' (S3 S26). The three seedling populations were inoculated with spores of the pathogen in a greenhouse test and assayed by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and by observation of canker incidence. The observed segregation fit a 3 resistant : 1 susceptible ratio in all three progenies, in contrast to the 1 : 1 ratio found when the resistant pollinizer `Gasaway' was crossed to susceptible genotypes. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) marker UBC 152800 linked to the resistance gene in `Gasaway' co-segregated with the resistant phenotype in all three populations with 2%, 4%, and 6% recombination, respectively. Seed germination and transplanting records did not provide evidence of selection in favor of resistant seedlings. Pollen germination was 71% in `Gasaway', 29% in `Zimmerman', and 18% in `Barcelona', indicating possible selection at the gametophytic level. Subsequently 16 resistant seedlings of `Zimmerman' were crossed with the highly susceptible selection OSU 313.078. Segregation fit a 3 : 1 ratio in 14 of the 16 progenies, and showed a surplus of resistant seedlings in the other two. None showed a 1 : 1 segregation. Resistance co-segregated with two RAPD markers that flank the `Gasaway' resistance allele. To test allelism of resistance from `Gasaway' and `Zimmerman', VR 6-28 with resistance from `Gasaway' was crossed with `Zimmerman'. Eight resistant selections from this progeny were crossed with OSU 313.078. Five of the eight progenies segregated 3 : 1, two progenies segregated 1 : 1, and OSU 313.078 × OSU 720.056 gave only resistant offspring. The ratios indicate that OSU 720.056 is homozygous resistant and that `Zimmerman' and `Gasaway' share a common resistance allele. Reciprocal translocations have been reported in hazelnut cultivars, including `Barcelona', the leading cultivar in Oregon. `Zimmerman' appears to be a hybrid of `Barcelona' and `Gasaway', but because of cytogenetic abnormalities, `Zimmerman' may have inherited two copies of the chromosome region that contain the resistance locus and flanking RAPD markers. If the region containing the resistance were attached to two independent centromeres, a 3 : 1 segregation ratio for disease response and flanking markers would be expected, and we propose this as the most likely explanation. Resistance from `Gasaway' and `Zimmerman' has been called “immunity” or “complete resistance.” However, we noted a few seedlings with small cankers, nearly all of which lacked sporulating stromata. Flanking RAPD markers indicate that the resistance allele is present in these seedlings. Although not “immune” or “completely resistant,” `Gasaway' and `Zimmerman' transmit a very high level of resistance.