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  • Author or Editor: Chin-Mu Chen x
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Chrysanthemum ‘Bai Tian Xing’, ‘Huang Ching Chin’, ‘Pink Pearl’, and ‘NCHU-001’ plants were preheated at 35 °C for 24 hours to induce heat tolerance. The recently fully expanded leaves were detached, kept in a moist Ziploc bag, and then subjected to 35, 40, 45, 47.5, 50, 52.5, 55, 60, or 65 °C for 20 minutes. After dark-acclimatized at room temperature for 30 minutes, leaves were measured for Fv/Fm value with a chlorophyll fluorescence parameter. Results showed that ‘Bai Tian Xing’ had the highest critical (Tcrit) and midpoint temperature (Tmid). Mean Tcrit and Tmid were shown to be 47 and 50 °C, respectively, and Tmid gave greater distinguishment of Fv/Fm value among cultivars. Plants of four cultivars were acclimatized at 15 to 40 °C for 3 days and 35 °C being the most effective temperature to induce a heat-tolerant response in chrysanthemum. Required inducing time to reach a stable leaf Fv/Fm value ranged from 4.6 to 11.1 hours among cultivars. All cultivars had similar required time to reach visible bud between summer and autumn crops (except NCHU-001), but all had delayed flowering in the summer crop. There is a negative linear relationship between flowering heat delay and leaf Fv/Fm value (R2 = 0.93). Progenies from reciprocal crossing of ‘Bai Tian Xing’ × ‘NCHU-001’ and ‘Huang Ching Chin’ × ‘Pink Pearl’ were also subjected to treatments for Fv/Fm measurements and observed for time to flowering in the summer crop. All combinations showed negative linear relationship between time to flowering and leaf Fv/Fm value (R2 = 0.70–0.87). Two plants, 109-W001Y and 109-W003Pi, showed early flowering habit and good flower performance under heat conditions were selected. All four cultivars and the two selected lines were measured for photosynthetic parameters under day/night temperatures of 35/30 or 25/20 °C in growth chambers. All cultivars and lines showed decreased net photosynthetic rate and dark respiration rate under 35/30 °C when compared with 25/20 °C. Relatively higher net photosynthetic rate and lower dark respiration rate in ‘Bai Tian Xing’, ‘109-W001Y’, and ‘109-W003Pi’ under 35/30 °C, when compared with the other three cultivars, might have contributed to better flowering performance in the summer.

Open Access

A double-flowered periwinkle [Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don.] mutant TYV1 was identified and the morphology and inheritance of the double-flowered phenotype was studied. TYV1 has an outer salverform whorl of petals and an additional inner funnel-shaped whorl of petals originating from the apex of the corolla. The apex of corolla tube forms a narrow opening. There are hairs under the opening at the apex. The stigma in this mutant is set below the anthers. The overlap between the top end of the pistil and bottom ends of anthers in TYV1 flowers at 1 to 2 days after anthesis is 0.56 ± 0.01 mm. TYV1 could be used as either the male or female parent in crossing. Self-pollinated TYV1 produced all double-flowered progeny compared with self-pollinated single-flowered cultivars Little Pinkie and Titan Burgundy, which produced all single-flowered progeny. F1 plants between TYV1 and ‘Little Pinkie’ or ‘Titan Burgundy’ were all single. Three F2 populations segregated into 3 single: 1 double ratio. Backcrossing F1 to seed parents also indicated that a double-flowered form was controlled by a recessive allele. A single dominant gene expressed in the homozygous or heterozygous state resulted in the single-flowered phenotype. All the young seedlings of self-pollinated TYV1 and double-flowered progeny had distorted leaves before the sixth pair of leaves emerged.

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Stem anatomy and modulus of elasticity (MOE) were compared between upright and trailing cultivars of periwinkle [Catharanthus roseus (G.) Don.]. The inheritance of growth habit and flower form was also studied. Internode cross sections revealed that phloem fiber was distributed at the inner cortex in upright cultivars but not in trailing cultivars. Except the youngest internode, the upright ‘Vitesse Pink’ had the highest MOE throughout the 1st–13th internodes above the cotyledon. The more trailing ‘Cora Cascade Strawberry’ had consistently lower MOE than a less trailing ‘Cora Cascade Polka Dot’. All F1 plants between upright and trailing cultivars were upright, and the F2 generation derived from self-pollinating F1 fit a 3 upright : 1 trailing segregation ratio. All F1 plants between upright/double-flower and trailing/single-flower exhibited upright and single-flowers, whereas plants in the F2 generation fitted a 9 upright/single-flower : 3 trailing/single-flower : 3 upright/double-flower : 1 trailing/double-flower ratio. New double-flowered periwinkle selections with trailing growth habit were successfully developed from the F2 population.

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