The synthetic auxins NAA and 3,5,6-TPA were investigated for reducing abscission of mature citrus fruit in California (CA). NAA was investigated on navel orange trees in San Joaquin Valley and southern CA locations. Of the seven NAA experiments presented, five had substantial fruit drop. In these five experiments, a treatment of NAA reduced drop by 31% to 88% compared to the untreated control. Although NAA treatments as low as 25 mg·L-1 (acid equivalent) reduced drop, the greatest reductions in drop were obtained by spray concentrations in the 100 to 400 mg·L-1 range. 3,5,6-TPA was investigated for fruit drop control properties on navel orange and grapefruit grown in various CA locations. The untreated control in seven of the ten 3,5,6-TPA experiments had substantial fruit drop. In each of these cases, a treatment of 10, 15 or 20 mg·L-1 (acid equivalent) of 3,5,6-TPA reduced drop 69% to 96% compared to the untreated control. A strong linear response from 3,5,6-TPA in these seven experiments indicates maximum fruit drop reduction from the highest rate investigated. On an acid equivalent basis 3,5,6-TPA seems to be comparable to 2,4-D. Both NAA and 3,5,6-TPA were effective in controlling preharvest fruit drop in citrus under CA conditions. Both materials provided fruit holding late into the harvest season. NAA, and in particular 3,5,6-TPA, offer the potential to provide a substitute for 2,4-D which is commonly used for controlling fruit drop in many countries. Chemical names used: naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA); 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinyloxyacetic acid (3,5,6-TPA, triclopyr); 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D).
Michael F. Anthony and Charles W. Coggins Jr.
Mohamed El-Otmani, Charles W. Coggins Jr. and Andrew Duymovic
Kurt D. Nolte, Eugene A. Nothnagel and Charles W. Coggins Jr.
Studies were conducted to determine whether certain physiological effects of gibberellic acid (GA3) on the peel of citrus fruits may be attributed to GA3 interaction with cellular membranes. Excised mesocarp tissue from pummelo [Citrus maxima (Burm.) Merrill] fruits was analyzed for electrolyte and K+ release over time in varying concentrations of GA3. Electrolyte leakage and K+ efflux was significantly reduced (up to 30%) when tissue was incubated in the presence of GA3. GA3 improved the viability of mechanically isolated protoplasts during 72 hr of storage at 7C, as shown by the use of fluorescein diacetate. These results suggest that some of the GA3-elicited responses in citrus fruits may be membrane related.
Etaferahu Takele, John A. Menge, John E. Pehrson Jr., Jewell L. Meyer, Charles W. Coggins Jr., Mary Lu Arpaia, J. Daniel Hare, Darwin R. Atkin and Carol Adams
The effect of various integrated crop management practices on productivity (fruit yield, grade, and sire) and returns of `Washington Navel' oranges [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck] was determined in the San Joaquin Valley of California. Seventy-two combinations of treatments comprised of three irrigation levels [80%, 100%, and 120% evapotranspiration demand (ETc)], three N fertilizer levels (low, medium, and high based on 2.3%, 2.5%, and 2.7% leaf N, respectively), gibberellic acid (±), miticide (±), and fungicide-nematicide (±) were included in the analysis. Using a partial budgeting procedure, returns after costs were calculated for each treatment combiition. Costs of treatments, harvesting, packing, and processing were subtracted from the value of the crop. The value of the crop was calculated as the sum of returns of crop in each size and grade category. The overall result indicated that returns after costs were higher for the +fungicide-nematicide treatment and also were generally more with increased irrigation. The combination of 120% ETc, +fungicide-nematicide, medium or high N, -miticide, and -gibberellin showed the highest return of all treatment combinations. Second highest returns were obtained with high N or with miticide and gibberellin used together.