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DeFrank and Charles R. Clement

Pejibaye (Bactris gasipaes, Palmae) is being evaluated for palm heart production in Hawaii. Counts of parasitic nematodes and yields at 18 months and weed control were evaluated in response to: Arachis pintoi, Cassia rotundifolia cv. Wynn, Desmodium ovalifolium, Chloris gayana, and woven black polypropylene mat. Four open-pollinated progenies from the Benjamin Constant population of the Putumayo landrace were used as replications. Twenty five percent of the plants were harvested, with means of 5, 20, 15, 15, and 70%, respectively. Individual heart weights did not vary significantly among treatments (mean = 169 g). Actual yields were significantly different, with means of 31, 125, 92, 99, and 440 kg/ha, respectively. All vegetative ground covers competed with pejibaye for nutrients, which explains the harvest percentages and yields. D. ovalifolium and C. gayana provided acceptable weed control. A. pintoi provided good ground cover, but reduced weed control.

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Joseph DeFrank and Charles R. Clement

Pejibaye (Bactris gasipaes, Palmae) is being evaluated for heart of palm production in Hawaii. Yields and weed control were evaluated in response to: oryzalin (4.5 and 9.0 kg ai/ha), oxyfluorfen (0.6 and 1.2 kg ai/ha), paraquat (1.2 and 2.4 kg ai/ha) and woven black polypropylene mat. Four open-pollinated progenies from the Benjamin Constant population of the Putumayo landrace were used as replications. Paraquat was sprayed at 50 day intervals, while the preemergence herbicides were sprayed at 90 day intervals. Harvest started at 18 months after planting out, 17 months after treatment initiation. The polypropylene mat yielded the highest percent harvest (80%), followed by Oxyfluorfen (50%), paraquat (20%), oryzalin (12.5%). There were replication (genotype) effects that suggest varying tolerance to paraquat and oryzalin. Estimated palm heart yields (3731 plants/ha), corrected for % harvest, were highest with polypropylene mat (490 kg/ha), followed by oxyfluorfen 1.2 ai (425 kg/ha) and 0.6 ai (330 kg/ha). Paraquat severely inhibited growth of the suckers that assure future harvests. The performance rating of these weed control treatments was: mat = oxyfluorfen > oryzalin > paraquat.

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Joseph DeFrank and Charles R. Clement

Pejibaye (Bactris gasipaes Kunth, Palmae) is being evaluated for production of fresh heart of palm in Hawaii. Precocity, yields, and weed control were evaluated in response to woven black polypropylene mat (control), oryzalin, oxyfluorfen, and paraquat. Control plots attained 100% of plants harvested by 26 months, followed by oxyfluorfen (97.5%), oryzalin (77.5%), and paraquat (60%). Estimated heart of palm yields (3731 plants/ha) were similar with oxyfluorfen 1.2 kg a.i./ha (707 kg·ha–1), polypropylene mat (612 kg·ha–1), oxyfluorfen 0.6 kg a.i./ha (600 kg·ha–1), and oryzalin 4.5 kg a.i./ha (478 kg·ha–1). Based on precocity, yields, and weed control efficiency, the performance rating of these weed control treatments was mat ≈ oxyfluorfen > oryzalin > paraquat. Chemical names used: 4-(dipropylamino)-3,5-dinitrobenzenesulfonamide (oryzalin); 2-chloro-1-(3-ethoxy-4-nitrophenoxy)-4-(trifluoromethyl)benzene (oxyfluorfen); 1,1′-dimethyl-4-4′-bibyridinium ion (paraquat).

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Charles R. Clement and Joseph DeFrank

Pejibaye (Bactris gasipaes Kunth) is being evaluated in Hawaii for production of fresh heart-of-palm. Yields and offshoot (sucker) production were evaluated in response to woven black polypropylene mat (control), three legumes [Arachis pintoi Krap. & Greg., Cassia rotundifolia Pers., and Desmodium heterocarpon (L.) DC], and a grass (Chloris gayana Kunth) used as ground covers. D. heterocarpon and C. gayana formed closed canopies quickly and controlled weeds well, but required more frequent mowing. A. pintoi formed a closed canopy slowly and only controlled weeds after forming a thick canopy, but required less mowing. Cassia rotundifolia died out after flowering and setting seed. All vegetative ground covers delayed heart-of-palm harvest and had reduced yields 1.5 years after planting. A combination of polypropylene (adjacent to plants) and vegetative ground covers (in service rows) may provide the best solution to minimizing labor for vegetative management in this orchard crop.

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Charles R. Clement and Joseph DeFrank

Pejibaye (Bactris gasipaes Kunth) is being evaluated in Hawaii for production of fresh heart-of-palm. Yields and offshoot (sucker) production were evaluated in response to woven black polypropylene mat (control), three legumes [Arachis pintoi Krap. & Greg., Cassia rotundifolia Pers., and Desmodium heterocarpon (L.) DC], and a grass (Chloris gayana Kunth) used as ground covers. D. heterocarpon and C. gayana formed closed canopies quickly and controlled weeds well, but required more frequent mowing. A. pintoi formed a closed canopy slowly and only controlled weeds after forming a thick canopy, but required less mowing. Cassia rotundifolia died out after flowering and setting seed. All vegetative ground covers delayed heart-of-palm harvest and had reduced yields 1.5 years after planting. A combination of polypropylene (adjacent to plants) and vegetative ground covers (in service rows) may provide the best solution to minimizing labor for vegetative management in this orchard crop.

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Charles R. Clement and Richard M. Manshardt

The pejibaye (Bactris gasipaes, Palmae) is being evaluated in Hawaii as a source of fresh hearts of palm. Nine open-pollinated progenies from the Benjamin Constant population of the Putumayo landrace are planted at three sites in a RCB. The best site started yielding at 15 months after planting, the intermediate at 16 months, the poorest at 18 months. During the first four months of harvest at the best site, 25% of the plants were cut; during three months at the intermediate site, 15% were cut; during the first cut at the poor site, 1% were cut. Progeny harvest percentages ranged from 7 to 53% at the best site, with only three progenies above average (33, 47, 53%). These are considered to be precocious. These three progenies produced average size hearts (172±36, 204±57, 203±44 g/plant, respectively; experimental mean±SD = 205±53 g), but yielded above average at 5000 plants/ha (275, 480, 524 kg/ha, respectively; exp. mean = 272 kg; corrected for % cut). Potential yields of these progenies were near the mean (871±198, 1018±280, 983±197 kg/ha, respectively; exp. mean = 986±381 kg/ha), but their precocity provides early returns to the farmer.

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Charles R Clement and Richard M. Manshardt

The pejibaye (Bactris gasipaes, Palmae) is being evaluated in Hawaii as a source of fresh hearts of palm. Nine open-pollinated progenies from the Benjamin Constant population of the Putumayo landrace are planted at three densities: 1.5 × 2 m (3333 plants/hectare); 1 × 2 m (5000 pl/ha, the commercial density in Costa Rica); 1 × 1.5 m (6666 pl/ha). Harvest started at 15 months after planting and four months later 25% of the plants had been harvested, with 25%, 30% and 21% at 3333, 5000, and 6666 pl/ha, respectively. Mean heart diameters were unaffected by density (mean±SD = 3.2±0.4 cm). Heart lengths were similar (24±5 cm, 23±6 cm, 26±5 cm, respectively), as were heart weights (200±41 g, 187±44 g, 224±42 g, respectively). This relative uniformity was unexpected, as density effected all of these yield components in earlier experiments in Latin America. Potential yields were different (667±136 kg/ha, 835±221 kg/ha, 1491±275 kg/ha, respectively), and are comparable to yields reported from Costa Rica. Actual precocious yields, however, were not different (167 kg/ha, 278 kg/ha, 385 kg/ha, respectively).

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Catherine G. Cavaletto, Natalie Y. Nagai, Charles R. Clement and Richard M. Manshardt

Fresh pejibaye palm heart samples were evaluated from 1) progenies from the Benjamin Constant population of the Putumayo landrace and 2) progenies from the Yurimaguas population of the Pampa Hermosa landrace. Favorable sensory characteristics included sweetness, tenderness, crispness, and moistness. Negative sensory characteristics found in some samples were astringency and acridity. Sensory scores for astringency and acridity were significantly different (p=.05) between sections of the heart Basal sections appear to be more acrid and astringent than the apical sections. Differences in acridity also exist between plants within a progeny (p=.05). Percent total soluble solids ranged from 3.0 to 6.6, but no obvious pattern was apparent. Samples were also provided to chefs in upscale restaurants where they received favorable comments.

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Charles R. Clement, Richard M. Manshardt, Joseph DeFrank, Catherine G. Cavaletto and Natalie Y. Nagai