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- Author or Editor: Charles J. Eckenrode x
Nearly 350 germplasm accessions representing 25 Allium species were evaluated for damage by onion maggot (OM) [Delia antiqua (Meigen)] in field experiments in 1989. In 1990, 188 additional accessions and breeding lines were evaluated, and 36 entries from the 1989 evaluation were re-evaluated. In both years, there were no significant differences in OM damage to seedlings among accessions within the species tested. However, differences among species were highly significant. Allium cepa L. (bulb onion) seedlings had consistently high OM damage. Species with significantly less seedling damage than A. cepa included: A. altaicum Pall., A. angulosum L., A. galanthum Kar. & Kir., A. pskemense B. Fedtsch., A. scorodoprasum L., A. ampeloprasum L. (leek), A. fistulosum L. (bunching onion), A. schoenoprasum L. (chive), and A. tuberosum Rottl. ex Spr. (garlic chive). Some species sustaining minimal damage as seedlings were nonetheless heavily damaged as mature plants by a later generation of OM. Allium cepa cultivars that were well-adapted to local conditions were heavily damaged as seedlings, but their bulbs were less damaged than those of poorly adapted A. cepa germplasm. Allium ampeloprasum seedlings and mature plants sustained low injury throughout both growing seasons.
Several chemicals applied to dry seeds by means of organic solvents were successful in preserving seed quality as determined by germinating capability of seeds or ATP content. The fungicide (pentachloronitrobenzene)-treated, injured or healthy pea (Pisum sativum L. cv. Alaska) seeds were highly resistant to infection by Aspergillus ruber (Konig, Spiekerman and Bremer) Thom and Church (NRRL 52), a storage fungus. The insecticide, Chlorpyrifos caused the lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus L. cv. Fordhook 242) seeds to produce seedlings with reduced levels of damage from the seed-corn maggot, Hylemya platura (Meigen). The antibiotics, chloramphenicol and puromycin, slowed down the rate of deterioration of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. cv. Grand Rapids) seeds stored under accelerated aging conditions [43°C & 85% Relative Humidity (RH)].