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Richard Durham, Gloria Moore, and Charles Guy

Genetic linkage analysis was performed on an interspecific backcross of citrus [Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck cv. Thong Dee X (Thong Dee X Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf. cv. Pomeroy)], using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and isozyme analysis. Sixty-five progeny were analyzed for a total of 57 segregating markers including 9 isozymes and 48 RFLPs. Significant (p = 0.05) deviation from an expected 1:1 segregation ratio was observed for 21 (37%) of the 57 loci, but this did not exclude their use in the mapping study. Linkage analysis revealed that 50 loci mapped to 12 linkage groups while 7 loci segregated independently from all other markers. The total map distance included in the 12 linkage groups was 472 cM with the mean distance between markers being 12.8 cM. This does not represent a saturation of the genome with markers; however, this work demonstrates the potential for mapping traits of economic importance in citrus.

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Ilhami Tozlu, Charles L. Guy, Ouinvin Cai, and Gloria A. Moore

There is wide variation in Citrus and related genera in tolerance to cold and salt stress. While Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf. is an important rootstock for cold regions, it is salt sensitive. C. grandis (L.) Osb., on the other hand, is cold sensitive, but is relatively salt hardy. We are attempting to map genes (quantitative trait loci, QTLs) influencing salt and cold tolerance in Cirrus, using a BC1 population from [C. grandis × (C. grandis × P. trifoliata)]. As a first step, 2 year old containerized replicates of individual BC1 progeny plants have been salinized with 30 mM NaCl over a 9 month period under greenhouse conditions. Growth response under saline conditions, as evaluated by plant height and node number, varied significantly between individual progeny. Concentrations of 11 macro- and micro-elements, including Na and Cl, in leaf and root tissues were also determined. Ultimately, this data will be analyzed in conjunction with our current linkage map of this population, which consists of more than 200 marker genes, in order to map QTLs for salt tolerance.

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Guy Auderset, Charles Moncousin, Jane O'Rourke, and D. James Morré

Root formation in shoot cuttings of soybean (Glycine max L. `Williams'), mungbean (Phaseolus aureas Mdlbg.), English ivy (Hedera helix L.), and apple (Malus ×domestica Borkh. `Jork 9') was stimulated by dithiothreitol and reduced glutathione in the presence and absence of auxin (IAA) shock. In soybean, in the absence of auxin, root formation was stimulated to about the same extent by glutathione alone as with auxin alone. The roots induced by thiol compounds were longer than roots induced by auxin shock and were completely normal in appearance. Roots produced with auxin shock alone were short and exhibited characteristic auxin-induced deformations. With a combination treatment of auxin shock and thiol compounds, roots were more numerous than with either alone, somewhat longer than with auxin alone, and exhibited fewer of the usual deformations characteristic of roots grown in the presence of external auxins. The thiol compounds also were beneficial for rooting Malus shoots propagated from callus in vitro. The thiol compounds were most beneficial with older cuttings where auxin shock was often insufficient to obtain roots. In shoots where rooting was stimulated by thiol agents, shoots grew more rapidly than in those where rooting was induced by auxin shock alone. These findings suggest a use for thiol compounds alone or in combination with auxin shock to induce differentiation of root primordia as well as for stimulation of root growth. Chemical name used: indole-3-acetic acid (IAA).

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Dustin P. Meador, Paul R. Fisher, Philip F. Harmon, Natalia A. Peres, Max Teplitski, and Charles L. Guy

The objective was to analyze the physical, chemical, and biological water quality in horticulture irrigation systems in 24 ornamental plant greenhouses and nurseries in the United States. At each greenhouse or nursery, water was collected from up to five points (“Sample Types”) which included 1) “Source” from municipal or private well supplies, 2) “Tank” from enclosed storage containers, 3) “Subirrigation” from water applied to crops in ebb-and-flood systems, 4) “Furthest Outlet” that were irrigation emitters most distant from the Source, and 5) “Catchment Basin” from open outdoor retention areas. On average, Source water had the highest physical and microbial quality of Sample Types including the highest ultraviolet (UV) light transmission at 86%, lowest total suspended solids (TSS) at 3.1 mg·L−1, and lowest density of aerobic bacteria with 1108 cfu/mL of water. Average quality of recycled water from Subirrigation or Catchment Basins did not meet recommended levels for horticultural irrigation water for UV transmission (68% to 72% compared with recommended 75%), microbial counts (>100,000 cfu/mL compared with recommended <10,000 cfu/mL), and chemical oxygen demand (COD) (48.2 to 61.3 mg·L−1 compared with recommended <30 mg·L−1). Irrigation water stored in Tanks or applied at Furthest Outlets had lower physical and biological water quality compared with Source water. Level of aerobic bacteria counts highlighted a risk of clogged microirrigation emitters from microbial contaminants, with highest bacteria levels in recirculated irrigation water. The physical, chemical, and microbial water quality results indicate a need for more effective water treatment to improve biological water quality, particularly with recirculated irrigation.