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  • Author or Editor: Charles D. Pless x
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The objective of this study was to examine efficacy of soybean oil dormant sprays to manage San Jose scale (Quadraspidiotus perniciosus Comstock) on apple (Malus ×domestica Borkh.). On 14 Feb. 1994 and again on 20 Feb. 1995, `Bounty' apple trees were: 1) left unsprayed (control) or sprayed to runoff with: 2) 3% (v/v) or 3) 6% degummed soybean oil with 0.6% (v/v) Latron B-1956 sticker spreader, or 4) 3% 6E Volck Supreme Spray petroleum oil. Crawler emergence occurred 17 May-28 June, 7 July-30 Aug., and 7 Sept.-24 Oct. 1994. First-generation crawler emergence had started by 8 May in 1995. Both 3% petroleum oil and 6% soybean oil sprays reduced the numbers of first- and second-generation crawlers by 93% in 1994 and first-generation crawlers by 98% in 1995. The 3% soybean oil treatment reduced first- and second-generation crawlers by 60% in 1994 and first-generation crawlers by 83% in 1995. In 1995, apple fruit infestations by first-generation scales on the 3% soybean-, 6% soybean-, and 3% petroleum oil-treated trees did not differ significantly, but all fruit were significantly less infested than the controls.

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Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] oil was applied to apple trees [Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill var. domestica (Borkh.) Mansf.] as a summer spray in six studies to determine if it controls European red mites [Panonychus ulmi (Koch.)], how it affects net CO2 assimilation (A), and if it causes phytotoxicity. Sprays of 0.5%, 1.0%, and 1.5% soybean oil {TNsoy1 formulation [soybean oil premixed with Latron B-1956 (LAT) spreader-sticker at 10 oil: 1 LAT (v/v)]} reduced mite populations by 94%. Sprays of 1% and 2% soybean oil reduced mite populations to three and four mites per leaf, respectively, compared to 25 per leaf on water-sprayed plants. Soybean oil concentrations of 1.0% and 1.5% applied to whole trees reduced A for less than 7 days. Phytotoxicity did not occur when soybean oil was applied with an airblast sprayer at concentrations of 1.0% and 1.5% or with a mist bottle at 2%. Phytotoxicity occurred when soybean oil was applied with a mist bottle at 4% and 6%, which left soybean oil leaf residues of 0.22 to 0.50 mg·cm-2. No phytotoxicity occurred with 4% SunSpray, which resulted in a mean leaf residue of only 0.13 mg·cm-2. Spraying 1% soybean oil tended to give better mite control than 1% SunSpray Ultra-Fine oil, but caused greater oil residues and a greater reduction in A.

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