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  • Author or Editor: Charles A. Silcox x
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Turfgrass renovations commonly involve changing cultivars or species that are better suited for a given setting. Common bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.] is a perennial turfgrass that is difficult to eradicate before renovations, and poses contaminant concerns for the subsequent stand. Dazomet is a granular soil fumigant that has activity on various pests, including common bermudagrass. Field research was conducted from 2015 to 2016 in Raleigh, NC and College Station, TX to evaluate dazomet treatments including various combinations of soil incorporation (irrigation- or tillage-incorporated) and sealing (tarp or no tarp) methods, application rates [291, 291 followed by (fb) 291, 468, or 583 kg·ha−1], and fluazifop-P [fluazifop (0.4 kg·ha−1)] + glyphosate (2.8 kg·ha−1 acid equivalent) application(s) for established common bermudagrass control. Overall, treatments required fluazifop + glyphosate before dazomet application for acceptable control (>90% cover reduction) at 42 and 46 weeks after initial treatment (WAIT) in Texas and North Carolina, respectively. Soil-incorporation results varied by location, with dazomet application (583 kg·ha−1) fb tillage resulting in ≥88% cover reduction across locations, while acceptable control from irrigation incorporation was only observed in North Carolina. Tarping did not improve efficacy when tillage incorporation at the maximum label application rate provided acceptable control, suggesting practitioners may eliminate this procedure. Information from this research will aid turfgrass managers in developing cost-effective, ecologically sound common bermudagrass eradication programs before renovations.

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Renovation is an opportune time for golf courses to address annual bluegrass (Poa annua L.) weed populations. Dazomet (tetrahydro-3,5-dimethyl-2H-1,3,5-thiadiazine-2-thione) is an effective fumigant, but without a tarp cover, it is only effective at the highest labeled rates. Fraise mowing cultivation could be used to help remove surface material and allow practitioners to effectively fumigate at lower rates. In Summer 2018 and Summer 2019, two cool-season fairway renovation experiments were conducted in East Lansing, MI. The objective of these experiments was to assess annual bluegrass control and creeping bentgrass establishment following dazomet applications to fraise mowed surfaces. In the first experiment (fraise mowing surface disturbance experiment), dazomet was applied at a fixed rate (294 kg·ha−1) to fraise mowed plots at varying levels of surface disturbance (0%, 15%, 50%, and 100%) to a depth of 1.9 cm. In the second experiment (dazomet rate experiment), fraise mowing removed 100% of surface material at a depth of 1.9 cm and dazomet was applied at five rates (0, 294, 588, 147 + 147, and 294 + 294 kg·ha−1). Both experiments were conducted on two soils (sand topdressed vs. native) and evaluated two methods of fumigant incorporation (solid-tine cultivation vs. tillage). Five days after treatments were applied, plots were seeded with ‘Pure Select’ creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera L.). The level of fraise mowing surface disturbance had no effect on annual bluegrass emergence, and creeping bentgrass cover was poorest in native soils at the highest levels of surface disturbance. In the dazomet rate experiment, dazomet applied twice at 294 kg·ha−1 provided the most consistent control of annual bluegrass. With the exception to single applications of 294 in 2018, all dazomet treatments allowed for greater creeping bentgrass establishment than the nontreated control. Fraise mowing cultivation may simplify the removal of surface material from large areas; however, even when combined with dazomet applied at the highest rates, it fails to provide complete annual bluegrass control.

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The soil sterilant, dazomet, is the primary product in the turfgrass industry set to take the position of methyl bromide, which is no longer available for use on turfgrass. With turf surface renovations taking place throughout the country, the need for an effective soil sterilant is critical. This study focused on the ability of dazomet to inhibit germination of annual bluegrass (Poa annua) seeds when it is used as per the current, turf focused, label which decreased legal application rates across all surfaces. This study was a four-way factorial in a split-split plot design with whole plots in a randomized complete block design arrangement with three replications. The first factor, soil type, included two levels. Soil-type plots (60 × 95 ft) were either sand capped from topdressing over the native Capac loam or they were the native Capac loam. Sand topdressing was applied biweekly at a rate of 0.14 yard3/1000 ft2, April to September since 2011; accumulating a total of 1.5 inches of sand. Each of three replicated blocks consisted of two soil-type plots. The second factor was time trials, with two levels of starting times, June and August. Each soil-type plot was split into two subplots and the trials were assigned at random to subplots within each plot. The third factor, soil preparation, involved either removing the upper 1.5 inches of the sod/soil layer or spraying plots with glyphosate and then heavily cultivating them. This cultivation included a vertical-cut and a core cultivation with an aerator using 0.5-inch hollow tines at 2 × 2-inch spacing. The fourth factor, treatment regime, comprised 11 parameters that encompassed dazomet application rate, incorporation method, and the technique used to seal the soil surface. Dazomet treatments were applied with a shaker bottle, at rates that included 262, 421, 525, and 262 lb/acre applied twice at a 5-day interval. The treatments were incorporated into the soil either through 1 inch of irrigation, through four consecutive days of irrigation following this schedule: 1, 0.5, 0.25, 0.125 inch each day after application, respectively, or physically (P) with a rotary tiller set to 1.5 inches, the depth of the topdressing layer. All P incorporated plots were hand rolled following application, regardless of the tarping procedure. Water-incorporated plots were either sealed with a clear plastic 4-mil tarp or they were left unsealed. Researchers evaluated the level of germination control by counting individual annual bluegrass seedlings using a 1 × 1-ft grid. A significant interaction occurred between soil type and soil preparation as well as between soil type and treatment. A three-way interaction also occurred between trial, treatment and soil preparation. In general, tarped treatments showed better annual bluegrass control compared with nontarped treatments. Furthermore, sand topdressed soils showed lower numbers of annual bluegrass as compared with native soils. Finally, reduced annual bluegrass germination was found in plots that had the top 1.5 inches of material removed.

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