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Chang-Yeon Yu and John Masiunas

The objective of this study was to investigate the chromosomal and genotypic variation in regenerated plants of Solarium and Lycopersicon. Calli of Lycopersicon peruvianum genotypes PI199380, PI126345, PI251301, and LA1373, along with Solanum ptycanthum were transferred onto media consisting of MS salts with Gamborg vitamins. The shoots formed were rooted in vitro and transferred to greenhouse soil. Actively growing root tips were harvested and pretreated, fixed, hydrolyses and stained. Pollen mother cells were fixed in propionic alcohol solution and stained with aceto-carmine. The number of chromosomes were counted. The greatest variation was in Solanum ptycanthum with chromosome numbers ranging from 18 to 60 (2n=24). Progeny analysis for 12 somaclones of Solarium ptycanthum was done by selfing for two generations. Morphology, shoot height, and weight were determined in each generation. The amount of variation differed among the somaclonal lines.

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Chang-Yeon Yu and John Masiunas

Friable callus of Solanum ptycanthum and L. peruvianum PI199380 clone 149 were subcultured on liquid Murashige and Skoog salts and Gamborg Vitamin medium with 2,4-D (1mg/l) until a fine suspension of cells was obtained. The suspension cultured cells were then plated on selection medium. Twenty-five acifluorfen-tolerant cell lines of Solanum ptycanthum and fourteen tolerant Lycopersicon peruvianum cell lines were obtained by a stepwise increase in concentration of acifluorfen. Acifluorfen-tolerant cell lines were transferred on to regeneration media with the herbicide. Shoot regeneration differed depending on the cell line and acifluorfen concentration, ranging from 0 to 37 plants per calli. As acifluorfen concentration increased in the regeneration media, the number of shoots and shoot height decreased. There was a wide range of variation in shoot morphology, which depended on the cell line.

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Chang-Yeon Yu and John Masiunas

Repeated callus sub-culture reduce the regeneration capacity in many species. Our studies determined the effect of genotype and medium on regeneration of several Solanum and Lycopersicon genotypes from long-term callus cultures. In the first study, 13 genotypes were transferred to regeneration medium, including: Murashige and Skoog plus Gamborg Vitamins (MG); Murashige and Skoog (MS); Gamborg (GM); and white (WM). The greatest shoot regeneration was on the MG medium, containing the highest levels of thiamine. Shoot differentiation was greatest with 0.2 mg/l IAA and 2 mg/l BA. No plants were regenerated on GM or WM medium. In a second study, the effect of thiamine (0 to 200 mg/l) on shoot regeneration of the L. peruvianum genotypes PI199380, PI126945, PI251301, and PI128652, along with Solanum ptycanthum, Solanum nigrum, and L. esculentum `Diego' was evaluated. Shoot regeneration of Solanum ptycanthum, Solanum nigrum, L. peruvianum PI 199380 and PI25301 was best with 20 mg/l of thiamine.