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Chad E. Husby, Alex X. Niemiera, Robert D. Wright and J. Roger Harris

Use of polymer-coated fertilizers (PCFs) is widespread in the nursery and greenhouse industries. Temperature is the main factor affecting nutrient release from PCFs, yet there are few reports that quantify temperature-induced nutrient release. Since container substrate temperatures can be at least 40 °C during the summer, this research quantified the release of fertilizer salts in the diurnal container substrate temperature range of 20 to 40 °C. Three PCFs (Osmocote Plus 15-9-11, Polyon 18-6-12, and Nutricote18-6-8) were placed in water-filled beakers at 40 °C until one-third (Expt.1) or two-thirds (Expt. 2) of Osmocote's N was released. For Expts. 1 and 2, each fertilizer was put into sand-filled columns and leached with distilled water concurrent with column temperature incrementally increasing from 20 to 40 °C and then to 20 °C over a 20-h period. Leachate fractions were collected at every 2 °C increase and analyzed for fertilizer salts. In Expt.1 and in the range of 22 to 30 °C, salt release was highest, lowest, and intermediate for Nutricote, Osmocote, and Polyon, respectively. In the range of 38 to 40 °C, release was highest, lowest, and intermediate for Osmocote, Nutricote, and Polyon, respectively. In Expt. 2, salt release in the range of 22 to 30 °C was the same as in Expt. 1. However, at 38 to 40 °C, release was highest, lowest, and intermediate for Polyon, Nutricote, and Osmocote, respectively. Results show that salt release for PCFs are dependent on the temperature × fertilizer age interaction.

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Chad E. Husby, Alexander X. Niemiera, J. Roger Harris and Robert D. Wright

This study was conducted to determine the effects of temperature on nutrient release patterns of three polymer-coated fertilizers (PCFs), each using a different coating technology: Osmocote Plus 15N-3.93P-9.96K, Polyon 18N-2.62P-9.96K, and Nutricote 18N-2.62P-6.64K. Each fertilizer was placed in a sand-filled column and leached with distilled water at ≈100 mL·h-1, while being subjected to a simulated diurnal container temperature change from 20 to 40 °C and back to 20 °C over a period of 20 hours. Column leachate was collected hourly and measured for soluble salts and NO3-N and NH4-N content. For all fertilizers, nutrient release increased and decreased with the respective increase and decrease in temperature. Nutrient release patterns of the three fertilizers differed, with Osmocote Plus showing the greatest overall change in nutrient release between 20 and 40 °C, and Nutricote the least.

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Vickie Murphy, Teodoro Clase, Rosa A. Rodríguez-Peña, Francisco Jiménez-Rodríguez, Brett Jestrow, Chad E. Husby and M. Patrick Griffith

Palms (Arecaceae) are perhaps the most important tropical plant family for human use, both for utility and ornamental horticulture. The wide diversity of palm species with different seed germination characteristics necessitates tailoring horticultural practices to the needs of each. This is crucial for production and conservation horticulture. In this study, wild-collected seeds of yarey palm (Copernicia berteroana) and buccaneer palm (Pseudophoenix sargentii) were germinated in a variety of organic (standard nursery container mixes) and inorganic substrates. The yarey palm seeds were sown at two different depths, 0.5 inch and at the surface (seed half exposed). Mean maximum germination across all treatments for yarey palm was 79% and for buccaneer palm 60%. The standard nursery mixes generally fostered the best germination and long-term survival. This is likely due to a combination of the lower water availability at the surfaces of the more porous inorganic substrates (sand and perlite) and greater difficulty for coarse palm roots to penetrate the denser inorganic substrates, including fired ceramic, which otherwise had similar water-holding capacity (WHC) and even lower air space than the organic substrates. Difficulty of penetration caused roots of some seedlings to either dry up early in germination as in the surface sown yarey palm, or to “push up” the seed (buccaneer palm) rather than penetrating the substrate and this was often fatal. Thus, inorganic substrates are not recommended for germination and early seedling growth of these palm species and planting the seeds slightly below the surface may be preferable to surface sowing. For conservation horticulture of wild-collected palm seeds, this information can help prevent further genetic bottlenecks while under protective cultivation.