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Caula A. Beyl

Computer-aided design (CAD) is rapidly becoming an indispensable tool for landscape architects and designers. This has created the need for a simple-to-use, inexpensive, and readily available configuration for introducing computer-aided design on a limited budget to landscape students. This introduction to computer-aided landscape design can be accomplished easily and accurately using the 512K Macintosh computer and the software package MacDraw. Techniques are reported for shading, layering, and customizing plant and groundcover symbols, allowing a personal touch that is lacking in some more-advanced CAD packages. Computer-generated pages can be collaged to make full-sized landscape drawings, which are then copied onto reproduction vellum. In this manner, the design capability is not limited by the size of the minter. This design configuration is currently in use and was used to generate the design and the symbol illustrated.

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Caula A. Beyl

In addition to being an essential part of the continuous cycle of improvement, program assessment helps provide for documented accountability, improved learning content, and enhanced pedagogy. The process of using descriptions of the ideal graduate, program descriptive material, faculty and student input, and overlapping course outcomes to develop meaningful program learning outcomes is described. Both direct and indirect assessment methods can be used to determine if the program is meeting its desired learning outcomes as well as using classroom-embedded assessment, capstone experiences, collective portfolios, standardized tests, pre- and post-tests, exit interviews, and various surveys. A program matrix can be used to track where various program learning outcomes are being addressed within individual courses. This article describes a fundamental first approach to assessing and documenting program learning.

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Caula A. Beyl

In the past, a seminar course was considered effective if the students were trained in oral presentation techniques. Two things have changed since then: 1) the growing popularity of the poster as a form of research communication and 2) new technologies such as the use of computers and LCD projection systems. Familiarity with these techniques then becomes a highly desirable part of a seminar course designed to satisfy today's needs. At Alabama A&M Univ., the undergraduate and graduate seminar courses require students not only to present an oral seminar but to participate in a public poster presentation once each semester. The entire department participates in viewing the posters, questioning the students and assigning scores. This allows students to participate in a simulated professional meeting environment and learn how to interact with other professionals concerning their posters. The seminar course also includes topics such as parts of a seminar, multimedia presentations, computer usage, developing a time sense, dealing with fear of public speaking, public speaking do's and do not's, impromptu talks, handling questions, and poster techniques. Graduate students serve as moderators for the oral seminar sessions thus gaining additional experience. An essential part of the course is peer grading and evaluation. Peer involvement in the process acts to promote a high standard for oral seminars and posters.

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Leonardo Alvarez and Caula A. Beyl

A greenhouse study was established to evaluate the effect of different levels of root restriction on morphology, hydraulic conductivity, root length, and t-zeatin and dihydrozeatin riboside levels in exudate in peach trees. One-year-old `Redhaven' peach on `Lovell' rootstock were grown for 18 weeks in containers with volumes ranging from 1.93 to 11.55 liters. Plants grown in the most restricted containers (1.93 to 3.85 L) had roots that were smaller and exhibited fewer primary and secondary branches with less average length. Final leaf, stem, root fresh and dry weight and root length were reduced in the highly restricted versus the less restricted treatments (7.7 and 11.55 L). Root hydraulic conductivity (Lp) was not affected by container volume. There was less dihydrozeatin riboside and trans-zeatin in exudate of the most restricted plants versus the less restricted ones. Cytokinin levels continued to decrease over the time course of treatment. Shootroot ratio was not altered by the container volume suggesting a coordination of root and shoot growth modulated by the container size.

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Caula A. Beyl, Cathy Sabota, and Gokul Ghale

In teaching a course in landscape plant materials, the landscape plants which exist on campus are an important and accessible resource. Management of location, health. and cultivar information is critical to optimizing this resource. As a classroom assignment, campus plant materials were inventoried, entered into FileMaker Pro 2.1, a database manager, characterized and assigned locations. The campus map was scanned using a Microtek ScanMaker IIXE and the image imported into MacDraw II. A symbol library, which included symbols for trees, shrubs, and groundcovers, was developed by scanning hand drawn images and then importing them into MacPain. These bit-mapped images could then be duplicated as often as necessary and placed in appropriate locations on the campus map in MacDraw II. In this way, students are exposed not only to landscape plant materials but also to database managers and computer graphics capabilities. This approach also has the advantage that database information can be easily coordinated with physical location. plant materials can be sorted based on their characteristics, and information can be routinely and easily revised and updated.

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Cathy Sabota, Caula A. Beyl, and Gokul Ghale

The landscape plants that exist on the Alabama A&M University, Normal, campus are readily accessible for a plant identification and use course. Managing location, health, and cultivar information is critical to optimizing this resource. As a classroom assignment, campus plants were inventoried; entered into FileMaker Pro 2.1, a relational database manager; characterized; and assigned locations on campus. The campus map was scanned using a Microtek Scanmaker IIxe and the image was imported into MacDraw II. A symbol library, which included symbols for trees, shrubs, and groundcovers, was developed by scanning hand-drawn images and then importing them into MacPaint. These bit-mapped images were duplicated as often as necessary and placed in appropriate locations on the campus map in MacDraw II. Students were exposed to landscape plant materials, database managers, and computer graphics capabilities. This approach has other advantages: database information can be easily coordinated with physical location, plants can be sorted based on their characteristics, and information can be routinely and easily revised and updated. The database is used in the landscape plant materials class as a teaching tool and for self-guided tours.

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Caula A. Beyl, Gokul Ghale, and Lianjun Zhang

Root development of hardwood cuttings of Actinidia arguta was investigated in relation to the size of cuttings and the number of buds. Dormant shoots of 13 Actinidia arguta cultivars and lines were cut into lengths varying from 3.5 to 18 cm and containing one to nine buds. After being treated with 0.3% indolebutyric acid in talc, cuttings were stuck into oasis foam cubes and placed under intermittent mist. Actinidia arguta lines and cultivars included 74-46, 74-55, 124-40, 125-40, 127-40, 119-40-B, `Meader Male', `Meader Female #1', `Geneva #1', `Ananasnaja', `Michigan State', A. arguta cordifolia (Miq.) Bean 1563-51, and a New Zealand A. arguta cordifolia selection. Cultivar significantly affected number of roots, root grade, and length of longest root. In general, cultivars with the highest rooting percentages also had the most and longest roots and the highest root grades. The best cuttings for root formation had eight to nine buds (with three to four in active growth), diameters <2 mm, and lengths >10 cm. Cuttings with five to seven buds (with one to three in active growth), diameters between 2 to 8 mm, and lengths >8 cm exhibited the best root development in terms of number of roots formed, root length, and root grade.

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Cathy M. Sabota and Caula A. Beyl

To determine if biological efficiency of shiitake mushrooms was affected by the density of spawn inoculation, white oak logs about 31 inches (0.79 m) long were cut from trees harvested 14 Apr. and inoculated 6 May 2003 with strain WR46 of Lentinula edodes using four rates of inoculation. The number of holes drilled and inoculated with spawn was determined by multiplying the weight of each log by 0.5, 1, 2, or 3. A 15-pound log (6.8 kg) inoculated at “3” times the weight would have 45 holes drilled and inoculated. Each rate of inoculation treatment was replicated three times with three subsamples per replication. After six harvests over a 21-month period, the biological efficiency (BE) of the logs increased by 1.94% per additional hole per pound (0.45 kg). This increase in BE would result in $1.15 in additional returns per log with a cost of only $0.15 more per log due to increased spawn use, resulting in a net profit, excluding increased labor and wax costs, of $1.00 per log.

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Muhammad Hatta, Caula A. Beyl, and Stephen Garton

Jujube (Ziziphus jujuba) is a plant whose cuttings root with great difficulty. Several strains of Agrobacterium rhizogenes were tested on two segments (proximal and basal) of derooted jujube seedlings in the presence or absence of IBA for induction of roots in vitro. Strains of A. rhizogenes used were A4, A4pARC8, TR105, and R1000. Strain, segment of derooted seedling, and IBA influenced inoculation success. Strains A4pARC8 and TR105 were more infective than A4 and R1000. Basal segments were more responsive than proximal ones and 0.5 mg·liter–1 1BA had a positive effect on inoculation success. Agrobacterium rhizogenes and IBA were very effective in promoting root formation, root number, root length, and early root emergence. They worked synergistically, but were effective independently as well. A4pARC8 and TR105 were more effective than strains A4 and R1000, and generally more effective than IBA. lBA was unable to eliminate the differential response of the two segments for individual strains.