Computer-aided design (CAD) is rapidly becoming an indispensable tool for landscape architects and designers. This has created the need for a simple-to-use, inexpensive, and readily available configuration for introducing computer-aided design on a limited budget to landscape students. This introduction to computer-aided landscape design can be accomplished easily and accurately using the 512K Macintosh computer and the software package MacDraw. Techniques are reported for shading, layering, and customizing plant and groundcover symbols, allowing a personal touch that is lacking in some more-advanced CAD packages. Computer-generated pages can be collaged to make full-sized landscape drawings, which are then copied onto reproduction vellum. In this manner, the design capability is not limited by the size of the minter. This design configuration is currently in use and was used to generate the design and the symbol illustrated.
Caula A. Beyl
In the past, a seminar course was considered effective if the students were trained in oral presentation techniques. Two things have changed since then: 1) the growing popularity of the poster as a form of research communication and 2) new technologies such as the use of computers and LCD projection systems. Familiarity with these techniques then becomes a highly desirable part of a seminar course designed to satisfy today's needs. At Alabama A&M Univ., the undergraduate and graduate seminar courses require students not only to present an oral seminar but to participate in a public poster presentation once each semester. The entire department participates in viewing the posters, questioning the students and assigning scores. This allows students to participate in a simulated professional meeting environment and learn how to interact with other professionals concerning their posters. The seminar course also includes topics such as parts of a seminar, multimedia presentations, computer usage, developing a time sense, dealing with fear of public speaking, public speaking do's and do not's, impromptu talks, handling questions, and poster techniques. Graduate students serve as moderators for the oral seminar sessions thus gaining additional experience. An essential part of the course is peer grading and evaluation. Peer involvement in the process acts to promote a high standard for oral seminars and posters.
Caula A. Beyl
In addition to being an essential part of the continuous cycle of improvement, program assessment helps provide for documented accountability, improved learning content, and enhanced pedagogy. The process of using descriptions of the ideal graduate, program descriptive material, faculty and student input, and overlapping course outcomes to develop meaningful program learning outcomes is described. Both direct and indirect assessment methods can be used to determine if the program is meeting its desired learning outcomes as well as using classroom-embedded assessment, capstone experiences, collective portfolios, standardized tests, pre- and post-tests, exit interviews, and various surveys. A program matrix can be used to track where various program learning outcomes are being addressed within individual courses. This article describes a fundamental first approach to assessing and documenting program learning.
Leonardo Alvarez and Caula A. Beyl
A greenhouse study was established to evaluate the effect of different levels of root restriction on morphology, hydraulic conductivity, root length, and t-zeatin and dihydrozeatin riboside levels in exudate in peach trees. One-year-old `Redhaven' peach on `Lovell' rootstock were grown for 18 weeks in containers with volumes ranging from 1.93 to 11.55 liters. Plants grown in the most restricted containers (1.93 to 3.85 L) had roots that were smaller and exhibited fewer primary and secondary branches with less average length. Final leaf, stem, root fresh and dry weight and root length were reduced in the highly restricted versus the less restricted treatments (7.7 and 11.55 L). Root hydraulic conductivity (Lp) was not affected by container volume. There was less dihydrozeatin riboside and trans-zeatin in exudate of the most restricted plants versus the less restricted ones. Cytokinin levels continued to decrease over the time course of treatment. Shootroot ratio was not altered by the container volume suggesting a coordination of root and shoot growth modulated by the container size.
Tara H. Hayes and Caula A. Beyl
Flowering dogwoods. (Cornus florida L.) have been attacked by dogwood anthracnose. In vivo leaf reflectance values of infected leaves from Summer 1993, Fall 1993, and Fall 1994 were obtained using a spectroreflectometer at wavelengths from 300 to 2500 nm to determine what wavelengths could best detect differences between dead and healthy leaves. At -those wavelengths, a mathematical expression was devised and used to calculate the predicted reflectance value for that percent disease severity (Rexp50%). The predicted reflectance values were compared with actual mean reflectance values (Rmean) obtained from leaves with up to 50% disease severity achieving correlations of 0.95, 0.66, and 0.84, for the Summer and Fall 1993, and Fall 1994, respectively. For Fall 1994, actual disease severity values were obtained by scanning and image analysis to compute an expected reflectance for these actual percentages (Rreal%) for a correlation value of 0.98.
Caula A. Beyl, Cathy Sabota, and Gokul Ghale
In teaching a course in landscape plant materials, the landscape plants which exist on campus are an important and accessible resource. Management of location, health. and cultivar information is critical to optimizing this resource. As a classroom assignment, campus plant materials were inventoried, entered into FileMaker Pro 2.1, a database manager, characterized and assigned locations. The campus map was scanned using a Microtek ScanMaker IIXE and the image imported into MacDraw II. A symbol library, which included symbols for trees, shrubs, and groundcovers, was developed by scanning hand drawn images and then importing them into MacPain. These bit-mapped images could then be duplicated as often as necessary and placed in appropriate locations on the campus map in MacDraw II. In this way, students are exposed not only to landscape plant materials but also to database managers and computer graphics capabilities. This approach also has the advantage that database information can be easily coordinated with physical location. plant materials can be sorted based on their characteristics, and information can be routinely and easily revised and updated.
Torin O. Pope and Caula A. Beyl
Agrobacterium rhizogenes is a valuable new tool for inducing adventitious roots in difficult-to-root ornamentals To evaluate species and strain interactions, three ornamental species were chosen: Hydrangea quercifolia, Pyrus calleryana, and Photinia × fraserii. Terminal shoots (2.5 cm long) were collected at bud swelling and then immersed in bleach (20% v/v) for 10 min with stirring. They were rinsed three times in sterile distilled water and cultured individually in test tubes containing 15 ml of Murashige and Skoog medium. After 3 weeks, the uncontaminated shoots were divided into five groups: four strains of A. rhizogenes and a control. There was a significant effect of strain and species in the production of callus and organs from the shoot tips. The presence of strain by host interaction was observed In the morphogenic response of explants.
Caula A. Beyl, Gokul Ghale, and Lianjun Zhang
Root development of hardwood cuttings of Actinidia arguta was investigated in relation to the size of cuttings and the number of buds. Dormant shoots of 13 Actinidia arguta cultivars and lines were cut into lengths varying from 3.5 to 18 cm and containing one to nine buds. After being treated with 0.3% indolebutyric acid in talc, cuttings were stuck into oasis foam cubes and placed under intermittent mist. Actinidia arguta lines and cultivars included 74-46, 74-55, 124-40, 125-40, 127-40, 119-40-B, `Meader Male', `Meader Female #1', `Geneva #1', `Ananasnaja', `Michigan State', A. arguta cordifolia (Miq.) Bean 1563-51, and a New Zealand A. arguta cordifolia selection. Cultivar significantly affected number of roots, root grade, and length of longest root. In general, cultivars with the highest rooting percentages also had the most and longest roots and the highest root grades. The best cuttings for root formation had eight to nine buds (with three to four in active growth), diameters <2 mm, and lengths >10 cm. Cuttings with five to seven buds (with one to three in active growth), diameters between 2 to 8 mm, and lengths >8 cm exhibited the best root development in terms of number of roots formed, root length, and root grade.
Muhammad Hatta, Caula A. Beyl, and Stephen Garton
Trees of jujube (Ziziphus jujuba), particularly older ones, root with great difficulty. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to assess the effects of two strains of Agrobacterium rhizogenes (A4 and TR105) on softwood cuttings from two trees—a tree 10 years old not currently bearing flowers, which we called “juvenile” because it still exhibited many juvenile characteristics; and a tree ≈70 years old containing many flower buds, which we called “mature”. The cuttings were collected on 11 May 1994 and trimmed to 7.5 cm. Both strain and source of cutting influenced inoculation success—TR105 was more responsive to A. rhizogenes than was A4 and the “juvenile” cuttings more responsive than “mature” cuttings. Strain TR105 was very effective in increasing rooting percentages and root number. “Juvenile” cuttings had better rooting percentages, greater root number, and greater root length than did “mature” cuttings. Agrobacterium rhizogenes exhibits great potential for rooting other difficult woody ornamental or fruit tree species as well.