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Caula A. Beyl

Computer-aided design (CAD) is rapidly becoming an indispensable tool for landscape architects and designers. This has created the need for a simple-to-use, inexpensive, and readily available configuration for introducing computer-aided design on a limited budget to landscape students. This introduction to computer-aided landscape design can be accomplished easily and accurately using the 512K Macintosh computer and the software package MacDraw. Techniques are reported for shading, layering, and customizing plant and groundcover symbols, allowing a personal touch that is lacking in some more-advanced CAD packages. Computer-generated pages can be collaged to make full-sized landscape drawings, which are then copied onto reproduction vellum. In this manner, the design capability is not limited by the size of the minter. This design configuration is currently in use and was used to generate the design and the symbol illustrated.

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Caula A. Beyl

In the past, a seminar course was considered effective if the students were trained in oral presentation techniques. Two things have changed since then: 1) the growing popularity of the poster as a form of research communication and 2) new technologies such as the use of computers and LCD projection systems. Familiarity with these techniques then becomes a highly desirable part of a seminar course designed to satisfy today's needs. At Alabama A&M Univ., the undergraduate and graduate seminar courses require students not only to present an oral seminar but to participate in a public poster presentation once each semester. The entire department participates in viewing the posters, questioning the students and assigning scores. This allows students to participate in a simulated professional meeting environment and learn how to interact with other professionals concerning their posters. The seminar course also includes topics such as parts of a seminar, multimedia presentations, computer usage, developing a time sense, dealing with fear of public speaking, public speaking do's and do not's, impromptu talks, handling questions, and poster techniques. Graduate students serve as moderators for the oral seminar sessions thus gaining additional experience. An essential part of the course is peer grading and evaluation. Peer involvement in the process acts to promote a high standard for oral seminars and posters.

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Caula A. Beyl

In addition to being an essential part of the continuous cycle of improvement, program assessment helps provide for documented accountability, improved learning content, and enhanced pedagogy. The process of using descriptions of the ideal graduate, program descriptive material, faculty and student input, and overlapping course outcomes to develop meaningful program learning outcomes is described. Both direct and indirect assessment methods can be used to determine if the program is meeting its desired learning outcomes as well as using classroom-embedded assessment, capstone experiences, collective portfolios, standardized tests, pre- and post-tests, exit interviews, and various surveys. A program matrix can be used to track where various program learning outcomes are being addressed within individual courses. This article describes a fundamental first approach to assessing and documenting program learning.

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Leonardo Alvarez and Caula A. Beyl

A greenhouse study was established to evaluate the effect of different levels of root restriction on morphology, hydraulic conductivity, root length, and t-zeatin and dihydrozeatin riboside levels in exudate in peach trees. One-year-old `Redhaven' peach on `Lovell' rootstock were grown for 18 weeks in containers with volumes ranging from 1.93 to 11.55 liters. Plants grown in the most restricted containers (1.93 to 3.85 L) had roots that were smaller and exhibited fewer primary and secondary branches with less average length. Final leaf, stem, root fresh and dry weight and root length were reduced in the highly restricted versus the less restricted treatments (7.7 and 11.55 L). Root hydraulic conductivity (Lp) was not affected by container volume. There was less dihydrozeatin riboside and trans-zeatin in exudate of the most restricted plants versus the less restricted ones. Cytokinin levels continued to decrease over the time course of treatment. Shootroot ratio was not altered by the container volume suggesting a coordination of root and shoot growth modulated by the container size.

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Cathy Sabota, Caula A. Beyl and Gokul Ghale

The landscape plants that exist on the Alabama A&M University, Normal, campus are readily accessible for a plant identification and use course. Managing location, health, and cultivar information is critical to optimizing this resource. As a classroom assignment, campus plants were inventoried; entered into FileMaker Pro 2.1, a relational database manager; characterized; and assigned locations on campus. The campus map was scanned using a Microtek Scanmaker IIxe and the image was imported into MacDraw II. A symbol library, which included symbols for trees, shrubs, and groundcovers, was developed by scanning hand-drawn images and then importing them into MacPaint. These bit-mapped images were duplicated as often as necessary and placed in appropriate locations on the campus map in MacDraw II. Students were exposed to landscape plant materials, database managers, and computer graphics capabilities. This approach has other advantages: database information can be easily coordinated with physical location, plants can be sorted based on their characteristics, and information can be routinely and easily revised and updated. The database is used in the landscape plant materials class as a teaching tool and for self-guided tours.

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Torin O. Pope and Caula A. Beyl

The Aquifoliaceae and Magnoliaceae families play an important role in seasonal holiday arrangements. For florists, floral designers, and seasonal gift shop owners, there is a great need to find cut foliage species suitable for use in floral displays. Foliage cuttings that retain their appearance, stay green, and do not drop leaves or berries are desired characteristics for greenery used in these displays. Because of their attractive foliage, the following species were chosen: Ilex × attenuata, Ilex vomitoria, Ilex cornuta `Rotunda', Ilex cornuta `Burfordii', Ilex opaca, Osmanthus heterophyllus, Ilex latifolia, and Magnolia grandiflora. For each species, cuttings were taken, fresh weights for these cuttings were obtained, and chlorophyll levels were measured. Measurements forweight and chlorophyll levels were then taken once a day for 5 days. After the five daily measurements, the measurements were taken once a week for 3 weeks. Based upon slow rate of water lost, chlorophyll retention, and visual rating of appearance, the two most suitable species were Osmanthus heterophyllus and Ilex latifolia. The Ilex vomitoria was unsuitable because of the tendency to drop leaves. The Ilex opaca was also unsuitable because of leaf drop and unattractive leaf curling.

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Rodulfo O. Pacumbaba Jr. and Caula A. Beyl

The growing popularity of Asian pears in the open market has generated a need for more information about their fireblight resistance and stress tolerance. In 1994, Alabama A&M Univ. established a large research planting of 10 cultivars of Asian pear on three different rootstocks. The cultivars included Kosui, Korean Giant, 20th Century, Hosui, Shinko, Ichiban Nashi, Shinseiki, Chojuro, Okusankichi, and Shinsui. The three rootstocks used were Pyrus betulaefolia, Pyrus calleryana, and Old Home × Farmingdale 333. The planting was arranged as a randomized complete block replicated 10 times with a total of 300 trees planted. Mortality was scored in late 1995 and data was subjected to Chi-square analysis. Rootstock did have a significant effect on mortality. P. betulaefolia had the lowest frequency of mortality of 11%, with Old Home and P. calleryana at 24% and 31% respectively. Cultivars also had a significant effect on mortality. Korean Giant and Shinseiki had the lowest mortality of 3.33% and 6.67%, respectively. Kosui and Hosui had the highest mortality of 46.67% and 36.67%. Stress conditions that occurred during 1995 and environmental factors that contribute to the development of fireblight were responsible for the mortality of the Asian pear.

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Christopher M. Cooper and Caula A. Beyl

Jujube (Ziziphus jujuba), is valued for its fruit, its ornamental quality, and for its use in reforestation. Jujube is considered to be very difficult to root. Five strains of Agrobacterium rhizogenes were tested on eight cultivars of jujube for the induction of roots. Strains of A. rhizogenes used were A4, TR105, AR WT, MT232, and 50. Cultivars of jujube included `Sherwood', `Sugar Cane', `So', `Li', `Silver Hill', `Tiger Tooth', `Lang', and `Contorta'. `Sugar Cane' had the lowest callus rating of the cultivars and `Li' the highest of the cultivars, followed closely by `Tiger Tooth'. `Sugar Cane' consistently had the lowest number of primary and secondary roots, and did not have any tertiary roots. `Li' consistently had the highest number of primary, secondary, and tertiary roots of the cultivars, followed by `Lang'. `Li' had more, longer roots than any of the other cultivars, followed by `Contorta'. `Li' had the best root grade rating of the cultivars. The highest percentage of rooting occurred in `Li' and `Contorta'. `Sugar Cane' had the lowest percentage of rooting. There was no significant effect of strain on any of the rooting parameters measured. Overall, `Li' rooted the best of the cultivars tested in response to Agrobacterium rhizogenes. `Sugar Cane' performed the worst.

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Muhammad Hatta, Caula A. Beyl and Stephen Garton

Trees of jujube (Ziziphus jujuba), particularly older ones, root with great difficulty. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to assess the effects of two strains of Agrobacterium rhizogenes (A4 and TR105) on softwood cuttings from two trees—a tree 10 years old not currently bearing flowers, which we called “juvenile” because it still exhibited many juvenile characteristics; and a tree ≈70 years old containing many flower buds, which we called “mature”. The cuttings were collected on 11 May 1994 and trimmed to 7.5 cm. Both strain and source of cutting influenced inoculation success—TR105 was more responsive to A. rhizogenes than was A4 and the “juvenile” cuttings more responsive than “mature” cuttings. Strain TR105 was very effective in increasing rooting percentages and root number. “Juvenile” cuttings had better rooting percentages, greater root number, and greater root length than did “mature” cuttings. Agrobacterium rhizogenes exhibits great potential for rooting other difficult woody ornamental or fruit tree species as well.