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  • Author or Editor: Catherine A. Neal x
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Crabapple (Malus ‘Donald Wyman’) and common lilac (Syringa vulgaris ‘Monge’) were grown from liners to marketable size in five production systems: field-grown, plastic container, pot-in-pot (PiP), bag-in-pot (BiP), and above-ground system (AGS). The objectives were to compare growth in modified container systems, which could potentially eliminate overwintering requirements in northern production nurseries and to compare the effects on tree root growth during landscape establishment. There were no significant differences in crabapple root or shoot mass after two seasons except PiP dry root weights exceeded field-grown trees. For lilacs, there were significant differences in growth and shoot dry weight with field-grown and PiP plants being largest. PiP root-zone temperatures (RZTs) were similar to field-grown RZTs. Container, BiP, and AGS systems all exceeded lethal high and low RZT thresholds, resulting in root damage. Five trees from each treatment were transplanted into a low-maintenance landscape and dug up 3 years later. There were no significant differences in top growth, but the effects of the production systems were evident in the root architecture. BiP and field-grown trees had fewest root defects and the greatest number of roots extending into the landscape soil.

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Abstract

Indoleacetic acid (IAA), gibberellic acid (GA3), and kinetin were incorporated into tissue culture media to determine the effective concentrations for sustaining growth of excised immature tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) embryos. GA3 (10-7 to 10-5 M) stimulated growth of 13- and 15-day-old embryos but resulted in morphological abnormalities. Kinetin (10-8 or 10-7 M) promoted embryonic development and expansion of cotyledons but inhibited subsequent growth. Combinations of kinetin and GA3 or kinetin and IAA were most beneficial for embryos excised 12 days after pollination, when embryonic development was at a globular to early heart-shaped stage.

Open Access

Abstract

Embryos of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) were excised 15 days after pollination and cultured on 20 different media to test a broad range of concentrations of salts, sucrose, and organic supplements on growth and development. Embryo growth and morphological development on 6 of the experimental media were better than on Murashige and Skoog’s (1962) revised tissue culture medium. Salt and sucrose levels were significant in their effects on growth, as was the interaction of salts with vitamins and amino acids. The medium with high salts, high sucrose, and low vitamins and amino acids was superior to any of the other treatments.

Open Access

Abstract

Quercus virginiana Mill., Magnolia grandiflora L., Liquidambar styraciflua L., Ulmus parvifolia Jacq. ‘Drake’, Lagerstroemia indica L., Ilex opaca Ait. ‘East Palatka’, and Pinus elliottii Engelm. were transplanted from 3-liter containers into 36-cm-diameter fabric Field-Gro containers, directly in the field into 36-cm-diameter auger-dug holes, or into 36-cm-diameter × 33-cm-tall black plastic containers. After 1 year, measured growth parameters of the Magnolia, Ulmus, Lagerstroemia, and Pinus were not affected by production system. Dry weight of Quercus and Liquidambar roots in the “harvest zone” were greater for trees grown in the fabric Field-Gro containers than those grown directly in the field. Quercus height and total carbohydrate content of Quercus and Magnolia primary root samples were increased by the fabric container. The above-ground container system clearly was inferior to the field-grown systems for production of the Quercus and Liquidambar under the conditions of this study.

Open Access

Lagertroemia indica L. × fauriei Koehne (`Natchez' crape myrtle) crown width increased after 13 months as irrigation frequency increased from every 3 days to every day, and the irrigated area around the fabric container increased from 20% to 100% of the circular area within 20 cm beyond the container. Restricting irrigation to within the fabric container plus 20% of the area 20 cm beyond the container edge resulted in less height and width for crape myrtle, but had no effect on root growth, compared to irrigating 100% of area 20 cm beyond the container. Restricting the pattern of irrigation to the container plus 20% of the area 20 cm beyond the container resulted in greater free-root weight (roots < 5 mm in diameter) within the container for laurel oak (Quercus laurifolia Michx.) compared to irrigating the container plus 100% of the area 20 cm beyond the container. Height, width, and caliper of oak were not different among treatments.

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