Immature leaf laminae and petioles of `Regale' and `Fry' muscadine grapes (Vitis rotundifolia Michx.) were cultured on Nitsch and Nitsch (NN) medium supplemented with 9.0 μm 2,4-D and 4.4 μm BA, and gelled with agar. Callus and original explant tissues were transferred to NN medium containing 10.7 μm NAA and 0.9 μm BA to proliferate embryogenic callus, which, when transferred to NN medium without growth regulators, yielded globular embryos. The embryos matured and germinated after being subcultured to fresh medium without growth regulators. Somatic embryogenesis incidence was greater from petioles than laminae: 90% of `Regale' and 50% of `Fry' petioles formed embryos, compared with 14% and 2% of laminae, respectively. Culturing germinated somatic embryos on NN medium with 1 μm BA enhanced shoot growth. Regenerated plants flowered and appeared morphologically normal. Chemical names used: N-(phenylmethyl)- 1H -purin-6-amine (BA); 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D); α- naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA).
Matthew Chappell and Carol Robacker
While the recommended time to prune abelia is before spring growth initiates, the actual pruning time is often variable and dependent upon labor and plant appearance. As abelia suffers from freeze damage north of zone 8A, pruning may have an impact on the level of freeze damage. Six Abelia genotypes were established in replicated field plots in Griffin, Ga., in 1999. On 3–4 July 2003, half the individuals of each genotype were severely pruned (75% of growth removed). Subsequently, 80 uniform-sized stem tips were randomly collected from plants of each genotype–treatment combination once per month from Oct. 2003 through Apr. 2004. Stem sections were exposed to predetermined temperatures ranging from –3 °C to –27 °C in a temperature bath. The number of stem sections killed in each of two replications out of four possible stem sections was recorded (0 = none dead; 4 = all dead). Data were analyzed with SAS using the Genmod procedure to acquire seasonal results as well as with PROC GLM and means separation to acquire monthly results. Using the Genmod procedure, all genotypes with the exception of `Canyon Creek' were significantly more cold tolerant in unpruned compared to pruned treatments. In this study, Dec. 2003 was the first month with temperatures below freezing at the test site. Proc GLM analysis indicated a significant difference between the pruned and unpruned treatments in Dec. 2003–Feb. 2004. Results of the Proc GLM analysis for the months of Oct. and Nov. 2003 as well as Mar. and Apr. 2004 were nonsignificant (P < 0.05) due to an absence of cold acclimation. These results indicate that mid-season pruning of Abelia genotypes can significantly reduce cold hardiness and lead to serious stem dieback in pruned plants.
Matthew Chappell and Carol Robacker
Azaleas (Ericales: Ericaceae: Rhododendron L.) are a staple plant in many landscapes of the United States and are largely resistant to predation by insects, with the exception of azalea lace bug [ALB (Heteroptera: Tingidae: Stephanitis pyrioides)]. Within deciduous azalea (Rhododendron: section Pentanthera G. Don) varying levels of resistance to ALB are observed with a continuous distribution from susceptible to highly resistant. In this study, epicuticular leaf wax from two ALB-resistant [R. canescens Michaux and R. periclymenoides (Michaux) Shinners] and two ALB-susceptible (`Buttercup' and `My Mary') deciduous azalea genotypes was extracted and re-applied to fresh azalea foliage. Leaf wax extracted from ALB-resistant genotypes and applied to ALB-susceptible genotypes conferred a high level of resistance to both ALB feeding and oviposition in the treated ALB-susceptible genotypes. Conversely, leaf wax extracted from ALB-susceptible genotypes and applied to ALB-resistant genotypes conferred susceptibility to the treated ALB-resistant genotypes. However, the effect was much less substantial than the effect of resistant wax extracts on susceptible genotypes and confined to ALB oviposition. When applied to the same genotype from which the extract was collected, leaf wax extract from ALB-susceptible genotypes had no effect on susceptibility, whereas resistant wax extract had a moderate effect on ALB oviposition rate. The results indicate that leaf wax serves as a primary mechanism of resistance of deciduous azalea to ALB.
Carol D. Robacker
Previous studies indicated that the number of shoots formed per nodal explant varied significantly depending upon the type of culture container used. Amount of media per container and amount of time that media was autoclaved were variables that differed among the containers. To determine the cause for the container effect on shoot number, a study was conducted in which autoclave time and amount of media per container were the same for all tested containers. Media was autoclaved in 500-mL batches for 30 min, then poured in 30-mL aliquots into sterile containers. Containers tested were plastic petri plates, GA-7 Magenta vessels and glass jars. Depth of the medium was 5 mm in plates, 8 mm in vessels, and 12 mm in jars. Nodes from in vitro grown shoots of `Triumph', `Regale', and `Fry' were cultured on Murashige and Skoog salts and vitamins with 2 mg·L–1 BA and 8 g·L–1 agar. Results indicated that the greatest number of shoots formed in the jars. In a second study, nodes were cultured on petri plates containing 30 mL of medium (depth 5 mm) or 70 mL (depth 12 mm). Two to three times more shoots formed on the plates with the greater amount of medium. These studies indicate amount and depth of medium are factors influencing shoot number.
Carol D. Robacker
Nodes from in vitro grown shoots of `Regale' and `Triumph muscadine grape (Vitis rotundifolia) were cultured in 25 × 95-mm glass vials, 25 × 150-mm glass culture tubes, 55 × 70-mm glass baby food jars and 100 × 25-mm plastic petri dishes. Culture medium consisted of Murashige and Skoog salts and vitamins, 80 mg/l adenine sulphate, 170 mg/l sodium phosphate, 2 mg/l BA and 8 g/l agar. Amount of medium dispensed was 8 ml per vial, 18 ml per culture tube and jar, and 70 ml per petri dish. Containers were covered with clear plastic lids, sealed with parafilm, and placed under fluorescent lights for six weeks. The number of shoots per explant that formed in petri dishes was three to four times greater than those formed on explants in vials, tubes and jars. However, the number of nodes per shoot were fewer in dishes than in the other containers. Callus formation was excessive in jars to the detriment of shoot production. Vials and tubes had small amounts of callus, while little or no callus was observed in dishes.
Carol D. Robacker and Betty Robicheaux
Micropropagation is a useful technique to propagate species such as deciduous azaleas, which are difficult to root from cuttings. To develop a micropropagation protocol that would be effective with a wide range of species and cultivars of native azalea, two culture media, Woody Plant Medium (WPM) (Lloyd and McCown, 1980) and ER medium (Economou and Read, 1994) were evaluated for ability to support growth of 11 species and four cultivars of deciduous azalea. Shoot tips were obtained from the first flush of growth in the spring on plants growing in the greenhouse or field. Following disinfection, the terminal and basal ends were removed from each explant. The explants were placed in culture tubes containing either WPM or ER medium with 12 mg/L 2iP and solidified with agar. Cultures were transferred to fresh medium every 4 to 6 weeks. Initial evaluations were made in 1996, and the experiment was repeated in 1997. In 1998, six of the taxa were evaluated for a third year. For most of the taxa evaluated, growth was superior on ER medium. On WPM, many of the cultures browned and died. R. canescens, R. viscosum, R. prunifolium, and R. austrinum are examples of species that preferred ER medium. R. alabamense, R. arborescens, and `My Mary' performed similarly on either medium.
Wojciech J. Florkowski, Carol Robacker, and Paul Thomas
Managers and employees of landscape maintenance and lawn care industry (LM/LC) applying pesticides can prevent pollution. Adequate information about application of herbicides, insecticides, fungicides, and nematicides is a prerequisite for proper application. A survey, prepared by an interdisciplinary research team “Ornamentals Working Group,” was implemented in 1994 to Atlanta metro area firms. The gross return rate was 25.4%. The majority of respondents had 10 or fewer years of experience in providing landscape services; had at least 13 years of schooling; and were in their thirties or forties. The categorical nature of dependent variables suggested ordered probit procedure as the statistical estimation method. Independent variables included characteristics of the respondent, firm characteristics, and information sources about the application of a specific pesticide. Extension and research personnel and commercial representatives were important information sources about insecticide and fungicide application. The use of all three sources of information by the LM/LC industry seems to depend on pesticide type, with commercial representatives, and extension and research personnel often acting as complementary information sources.
Carol D. Robacker and Sloane M. Scheiber
Abelia ×grandiflora is a drought-tolerant, pest-resistant, flowering shrub that has long been used as a foundation plant. Interspecific hybridization has produced seedlings with an assortment of morphological traits, allowing for development of new cultivars with unique or improved qualities. `Raspberry Profusion' and `Lavender Mist', developed at the University of Georgia, are seedling selections of `Edward Goucher' × Abelia chinensis. `Raspberry Profusion' is a very heavy and very early bloomer. Panicles are large and showy with fragrant pink flowers and raspberry-colored sepals. Flowering begins in early May and becomes very heavy by early June. The bright-colored sepals remain on the plant throughout the summer. Summer foliage is a medium to dark green color. In a pot, `Raspberry Profusion' blooms early and heavily. `Lavender Mist' is a heavy bloomer, with clusters of fragrant lavender flowers beginning in mid-June, and continuing into autumn. Sepals are a straw-green color at the base, becoming rose at the tips. Summer foliage is gray-green. `Lavender Mist' performs well in a pot, forming a gray-green mound contrasting with the lavender blossoms scattered around the plant. Leaves on both cultivars are glossy, particularly from mid-summer through autumn. Both plants tend to be mostly deciduous in the winter. Laboratory evaluations of cold hardiness in Griffin, Ga., during Winter 2003–04 revealed a mid-winter hardiness of –18 °C to –21 °C for `Raspberry Profusion' and –15 °C to –17 °C for `Lavender Mist'. These plants develop into dense compact shrubs following pruning and establishment in the landscape.
Carol D. Robacker and Sloane M. Scheiber
Abelia ×grandiflora is a hardy shrub in the landscape, surviving heat and drought with few pest problems. However, improved cultivars with better form, the ability to retain foliage during drought, and unique flowering and foliage characteristics are in demand. `Plum Surprise' is a new cultivar of Abelia that was developed at the University of Georgia in response to these needs. `Plum Surprise' is a seedling selection from the cross `Edward Goucher' × `Francis Mason'. It forms an unusual weeping, spreading mound with fine-textured foliage. In March and April, foliage is yellow-green with scattered red/purple leaves. In late spring, the foliage becomes emerald green, changing to a lighter green throughout the summer. New stem growth is red. The most striking features of `Plum Surprise' are the fall and winter foliage color and the evergreen habit of the cultivar. As autumn progresses, the outer shoots and leaves transform to red/purple or crimson, while the inner foliage is bright emerald green. Foliage is glossy in the winter, and a deep purple or burgundy color. `Plum Surprise' is a relatively light bloomer, with flowers scattered individually or in pairs. The flowers appear white, but on close examination have a purple blush with a pale yellow throat. `Plum Surprise' is noteworthy for its heat and drought tolerance. In both the summers of 2002 and 2005, when check cultivars had lost 50% to 80% of their foliage, `Plum Surprise' exhibited little leaf drop. `Plum Surprise' performs well in a pot under nursery conditions. The foliage cascades down over the pot, making an attractive appearance in both form and color.
Carol D. Robacker and S.K. Braman
Azalea lace bug, Stephanitis pyrioides (Scott), is a major pest on azalea. Adults and nymphs feed and oviposit on the underside of the leaves, causing a stippled appearance when viewed from above. Previous field and laboratory screenings of 17 taxa of deciduous azalea, including representatives of 11 species, have identified a range of resistance to lace bug. One of the most resistant plants observed was of the species R. canescens. The interveinal region on the underside of the leaves of this plant is highly pubescent. This plant was crossed to a susceptible plant of R. viscosum (formerly R. serrulatum), which was glabrous on the lower leaf surface. The resulting seeds were planted in 1996, and the seedlings were transplanted to the field in 1998. In Sept. 1999, a laboratory bioassay was conducted to determine the resistance levels of these progeny. Five cuttings, each with two leaves, were collected from each plant, including the parental genotypes. Two female lace bugs were transferred onto the leaves of each cutting and the leaves were enclosed in a plastic cup with mesh for ventilation. After 5 days, the number of live bugs and number of eggs per cutting were counted. The percent damage from feeding was estimated. To determine whether pubescence was correlated with lace bug resistance, two terminal leaves were collected from each plant, and interveinal leaf hair density was calculated. Results from the laboratory bioassays revealed a high degree of susceptiblity to lace bug among these seedlings. Most of the progeny were pubescent, indicating no relationship between leaf hair density and resistance.