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  • Author or Editor: Carl Campbell x
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During a 30-year career of research, extension, and teaching in tropical fruit production, I participated frequently in international agricultural activities in countries of Central America, South America, and the Caribbean region. In 1988, I retired from the Univ. of Florida to begin a “second career” as a freelance consultant in tropical fruit production and crop diversification, working for a variety of governmental and private organizations. This presentation contains suggestions for horticultural scientists who wish to become involved in consulting in international agriculture. First, decide the kind of work you wish to do and what your area of specialization will be. Choose work for which you have enthusiasm. Get training in basic as well as applied science. It is good to have a “day job,” at least at first, as you establish a reputation in your specialty. Become proficient in the languages of the regions where you wish to work; also carefully study the cultures. When you participate in an international project, work hard and prepare good reports of your accomplishments. As your career progresses, consider carefully whether or not you will become a full-time consultant. It is a demanding way to make a living, but it can also give much satisfaction and greater independence than one finds in many other kinds of work.

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Abstract

Significant changes are occurring in tropical fruit production in Florida. The greatest production occurs in the Dade County southwest of Miami, but there are plantings in warm areas of several other counties in the southern half of the Florida peninsula.

Open Access

Hurricanes occur periodically in southern Florida, resulting in severely damaged or destroyed orchards due to high winds, fresh-water flooding, and salt damage accompanying these storms. Commercial fruit production is often markedly reduced following hurricane damage. Orchard establishment and management practices that increase tree rooting depth and reduce tree size decrease tree losses due to high-velocity winds that accompany these storms. Cultural practices, such as post-hurricane pruning, whitewashing, resetting, and irrigation of trees, can rehabilitate a damaged orchard. Planning for a hurricane will increase the ability of orchards to withstand a storm and resume fruit production as soon as possible following a storm.

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On 24 August, 1992, Hurricane Andrew struck South Florida's tropical fruit production area with sustained winds of 230 kph and gusts exceeding 280 kph. Damage included defruiting, defoliation, limb and trunk breakage, windthrowing (uprooting), sunburning and the stripping of bark from the trunks and limbs by flying debris. In general, older and taller trees were more severely damaged than younger and shorter trees. Selective limb removal, topping and other pruning practices that reduced overall tree height and opened up the canopy greatly reduced the occurrence of windthrow and severe breakage. Severe damage occurred on lime, mango, passion fruit, lychee and longan; damage was moderate on atemoya, avocado, banana, mamey sapote, papaya and sugar apple; and light damage occurred on carambola and guava. The full extent of injury cannot yet be determined as additional losses will occur due to the direct trauma of the hurricane, insects and diseases, cold temperatures and drought.

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Abstract

Variability among 40 cultivars of Mangifera indica L. and one specimen each from M. odorato Griff, and M. zeylanica Hook f. were measured and classified using the unweighted pair group method of cluster analysis of distance coefficients based on 73 characters. Neither M. odorata nor M. zeylanica showed a close overall similarity to any of the cultivars of M. indica. Most cultivars clustered into 1 of 4 major groups. One group contained the polyembryonic cultivars with oblong fruit common to Southeast Asia. Another group consisted of monoembryonic cultivars with roundish fruit common to India. A third group, intermediate in fruit shape, included cultivars from India and one from the West Indies. The final group involved several hybrids developed in Florida and Hawaii. This group, as a rule, has large fruit and is designated as the Sandersha-Haden complex. A tentative pedigree based on both reported parentage and distance coefficients is given for this group. A few cultivars from Indo-china, the West Indies, and Réunion did not show close enough affinity to be placed into any of the above groups.

Open Access

Abstract

Principal components and cluster analyses, based on 67 characters, were applied to 38 cultivars, which collectively exemplified the 3 races of avocado and their racial hybrids. Diagrams constructed from principal component analysis clearly showed the phenetic diversity of the 3 races and their racial hybrids. Correlation and distance phenograms from cluster analyses did not show overall phenetic diversity as well as principal component diagrams. The phenograms were most useful, however, in showing phenetic similarities among closely related cultivars, which were obscure in principal component analysis. The 2 methods are, thus, complementary, and both methods are recommended in studying patterns of variation with species such as avocado.

Open Access