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  • Author or Editor: Cai Shao x
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Calcium (Ca) is necessary for plant growth and stress resistance, which are essential for the successful cultivation of Panax quinquefolium L. (American ginseng). However, information about the physiology of Ca nutrition in this species is limited. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the effect of Ca on the growth and physiological performance of American ginseng. Two-year-old American ginseng plants were supplemented with the following Ca concentrations [Ca2+] in a hydroponic system: 0, 160.17, 320.34, 640.68, and 961.02 mg⋅L−1. Measurements included growth biomass accumulation, chlorophyll (Chl) content and fluorescence, photosynthetic parameters, antioxidant enzyme activity, root activity, and malondialdehyde content. Biomass, stem height, leaf area, maximum photochemical efficiency, and superoxide dismutase activity peaked at [Ca2+] of 640.68 mg⋅L−1. Actual photochemical efficiency, minimum saturating irradiance, photosynthetic rate, catalase and peroxidase activities, and root activity reached their maximum at [Ca2+] of 320.34 mg⋅L−1. Stem diameter and regulated thermal energy dissipation increased with [Ca2+]. The sum of nonregulated heat dissipation and fluorescence emission and malondialdehyde content decreased to a minimum at [Ca2+] of 320.34 mg⋅L−1. The Chl content reached a maximum at [Ca2+] of 160.17 mg⋅L−1, but the Chl a/b ratio increased with [Ca2+]; the actual photochemical efficiency and photosynthetic rate reached their maximum level at Chl a/b ratios of 2.04 and [Ca2+] of 320.34 mg⋅L−1. Therefore, the optimal [Ca2+] for American ginseng growth was 320.34 mg⋅L−1. Furthermore, an appropriate increase [Ca2+] in the growth medium may improve biomass accumulation, light energy utilization efficiency, and stress resistance in American ginseng.

Open Access

Estimating chilling requirements is crucial for identifying appropriate cultivars for a given site, for timing applications of dormancy-breaking chemical agents, and for predicting consequences of climate change. For temperate-zone fruit species such as japanese apricot, productivity is reduced when chilling requirements are not adequately satisfied. In our study, we obtained chilling and heat requirements for flowering of six japanese apricot cultivars, which spanned the range of flowering times in this species for three successive years. Different methods for determining chilling requirements were evaluated and compared, and correlations among chilling requirements, heat requirements, and flowering date were established. The dynamic model proved to be the best for determining the chilling requirements of japanese apricot. The results showed a range of chilling requirements ranging from 26.3 to 75.7 chill portions and a narrow range of heat requirements, from 1017.7 to 1697.3 growing degree-hours (GDH). A very high correlation (R = 0.9797) between flowering date and chilling requirements and a low correlation (R = 0.4298) between flowering date and heat requirements suggest that flowering date in japanese apricot is mainly a consequence of the chilling requirements of the different genotypes, whereas heat requirements contribute a limited effect to the variation in flowering dates. Chilling requirements and heat requirements were positively related with a low correlation coefficient (R = 0.4211).

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