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- Author or Editor: C.K. Kim x
Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) were transformed using microparticle bombardment with two different genes, alpha-glucuronidase (GUS) gene and Chinese cabbage Glutathione Reductase (GR) gene. The adventitious shoots of cotyledonary explant from 4-day-old seedlings were formed (46.7%) in MS basal media supplemented with 5.0 μm IAA and 1.0 μm 2ip. When 1100 psi helium pressure, 9 target distance, and coating with tungsten 10 microparticles were used and explants were treated with osmoticum-conditioning medium (0.6M sorbitol/mannitol), 4 h prior to and 16 h after bombardment, it was identified by GUS assay that these conditions were the most efficient for transformation of foreign genes into cotyledon tissue of lettuce with particle bombardment. PCR confirmed that the band observed in the transgenic plants were originated from T-DNA tranfer with strong hybridization. The genomic Southern analysis showed that the 1.5-kbp fragment was hybridized with radiolabeled 1.5-kbp GR probe. To know whether the expression of the GR gene can be stably maintained in the next generation, when T2 selfing seeds that were obtained from the transformed mother plants were sowed on MS medium supplemented with 200 μm kanamycin, 70% of seedlings were revealed resistance to kanamycin.
Somatic embryogenesis was initiated from in vitro-grown leaf explants of rose using an induction period of 4 weeks on MS basal medium supplemented with auxin followed by several subcultures on MS basal medium with cytokinin. `4th of July' showed the highest regeneration frequency (24.4%) on 5.3 μm NAA followed by culture on medium containing 18.2 μm zeatin. `Tournament of Roses' produced somatic embryos when cultured for 4 weeks on medium containing dicamba, 2.3 μm followed by three subcultures on medium containing 18.2 μm zeatin. Embryogenic callus matured on MS media containing 0.5 μm NAA, 6.8 μm zeatin, and 2.9 μm GA3. Long-term cultures were established for both cultivars. Somatic embryos germinated on MS medium containing IBA and BA. Silver nitrate (58.8 μm) enhanced shoot formation and germination of somatic embryos. Plants derived from somatic embryos were acclimatized and successfully established in the greenhouse.
Twenty-four half-sib sweetpotato families were field tested for freedom from injury by sweetpotato weevil and other soil inhabiting, injurious insects (WDS). Three pairs of adult male and female weevils were applied to the crown of each plant at the beginning of storage root enlargement. Naturally occurring numbers of WDS were high enough for considerable injury from those insects. WDS injury free roots ranged from 19% in Centennial, the suceptible control, to 57% in Regal, the resistant control. The highest family mean for percent non-injured by WDS was 55%. Weevil injury free roots ranged from 67% in Centennial to 90% in Regal with 3 families producing mean weevil non-injured roots of 89%. The genetic correlation between weevil injury free and WDS injury free roots was 0.69 ± 0.28. That estimate is preliminary and based on data from one environment. Evaluations will be repeated in 1994 for estimates of GXE to derive genetic correlation estimates with less environmental interactions.
An elite group of 38 strawberry accessions representing all subspecies of the beach strawberry [Fragaria chiloensis (L.) Miller] and the scarlet strawberry (F. virginiana Miller) was planted in a replicated design at five locations across the United States, and evaluated for plant vigor, flowering date, runner density, fruit set, fruit appearance, and foliar disease resistance. Considerable genotyp× location interaction was observed for many of these traits. However, a few genotypes were impressive at all locations including PI 551735 (FRA 368) with its unusually large, early fruit, and PIs 612486 (NC 95-19-1), 612493 (Frederick 9), and 612499 (RH 30), which were very vigorous and had unusually good fruit color. Genotypes that were superior at individual locations included PIs 551527 (FRA 110) and 551728 (Pigeon Pt.) in Maryland for their large fruit, and PI 612490 (Scotts Creek) in Oregon which had extremely large fruit, superior color, firmness, and flavor. The PIs 612495 (LH 50-4), 612498 (RH 23), and 612499 (RH 30) performed well as day neutrals at multiple sites.
The recent increased market demand for locally grown produce is generating interest in the application of techniques developed for controlled environment agriculture (CEA) to urban agriculture (UA). Controlled environments have great potential to revolutionize urban food systems, as they offer unique opportunities for year-round production, optimizing resource-use efficiency, and for helping to overcome significant challenges associated with the high costs of production in urban settings. For urban growers to benefit from CEA, results from studies evaluating the application of controlled environments for commercial food production should be considered. This review includes a discussion of current and potential applications of CEA for UA, references discussing appropriate methods for selecting and controlling the physical plant production environment, resource management strategies, considerations to improve economic viability, opportunities to address food safety concerns, and the potential social benefits from applying CEA techniques to UA. Author’s viewpoints about the future of CEA for urban food production are presented at the end of this review.