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  • Author or Editor: C.J. Stanley x
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The effect of the plant density (15, 30, 45 × 96-cm spacing) on the branching pattern `Jewel' sweet potato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.] was determined bi-weekly for 18 weeks. Plant density effects were significant for the number of branches formed and timing of branch formation. Plant density did not affect the type of branches formed (e.g., primary, secondary, and tertiary), but did alter the timing of induction during the growing season. By the end of the growing period, the ratios for the number of primary to secondary branches were 1.5:1, 1.3:1, and 0.6:1 at the 15-, 30-, and 45-cm spacing, respectively. Few tertiary branches were formed, but were present on some plants at each spacing. Tertiary branches most commonly occurred on plants at the widest spacing. While the number of branches per plant was highly plastic and inversely related to plant density, nodes per branch and internode length were not significantly affected. Average internode length per branch decreased with descending branch hierarchy (i,e., main stem < primary branch < secondary branch). `Jewel' sweet potato responded to increased space available largely through production of additional branches with the modification of branching pattern increasing as the season progressed.

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Changes in leaf distribution of the sweet potato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.] cultivar Jewel were assessed bi-weekly for 18 weeks at three plant densities (15, 30, and 45 cm × 96-cm spacing). The distribution of leaves on the branches and the timing at which leaf number stabilized were affected by the plant density. Plant density resulted in significant differences in the number of leaves and percentage of missing leaves during the growing season. Leaf number and total leaf area varied substantially in response to plant density, but individual lamina and petiole lengths and leaf area did not vary. Average petiole and leaf lengths and leaf size increased during the season, with the maximum length and area dependent on the type of branch on which the leaf was formed. Average petiole length per branch and the susceptibility to leaf loss increased with descending branch hierarchy (secondary branch < primary branch < main stem). Leaf losses after the 4th week tended to parallel a progressive increase in petiole length of new leaves, suggesting shading as a primary cause of leaf shedding and the loss of the oldest leaves first.

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Many factors contribute to final apple fruit size. Researchers have studied these factors and have developed models, some very complex. Results from many New Zealand regions over several years suggest that early season temperature along with crop load are the key factors driving final fruit size. Accumulated growing degree days from full bloom to 50 days after full bloom (DAFB), accounted for 90% of the variance in fruit weight of `Royal Gala' apples at 50 DAFB under nonlimiting low-crop-load conditions. In turn, fruit weight at 50 DAFB accounted for 90% of the variance in final fruit size at harvest under the low-crop-load conditions. We hypothesise that a potential maximum fruit size is set by 50 DAFB, determined by total fruit cell number, resulting from a temperature-responsive cell division phase. Under conditions of no limitations after the cell division phase, we suggest that all cells would expand to their optimum size to provide the maximum fruit size achievable for that cell number. Factors which affect growth partitioning among fruits, e.g., higher crop loads, would reduce final fruit size, for any given cell number, when grown in the same environment. In Oct. 1999, four different crop loads were established at full bloom on `Royal Gala' trees (M9 rootstock) in four climatically different regions. In Hawkes Bay, similar crop loads were established at 50 DAFB on additional trees. Hourly temperatures were recorded over the season. Fruit size was measured at 50 DAFB and fruit will be harvested in Feb. 2000. These data should provide fresh insight and discussion into the respective roles of temperature and competition during the cell division fruit growth phase on apple fruit size.

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Abstract

Leaf water potential (LWP) data for cut-flower chrysanthemums (Crysanthemum morifolium Ramat.) collected from 5 different irrigation rate treatments throughout the growing season were compared to the final plant characteristics and yield in order to evaluate the usefulness of LWP for estimating water stress effects on ultimate yield. Significant treatment differences for LWP response measured during high evaporative demand periods were similar to treatment differences for yields and final plant characteristics. Treatment differences for LWP response measured during low evaporative demand periods were not significant and did not reflect the significant treatment differences for yields and final plant characteristics. Results indicate that LWP measurements vary with changes in atmospheric conditions, such as cloud cover, and are difficult to interpret relative to water stress effects on final plant characteristics. Plant growth parameters, such as height or growth rate, when monitored during the season, were found to be more adequate indicators of stress effects on final yield.

Open Access

Abstract

The numbers of twospotted spider mites (Tetranychus urticae Koch) per unit of leaf area on ‘Manatee Yellow Iceberg’ chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum X morifolium Ramat.) grown with 13.6, 20.3, 27.1, 33.9, or 40.7 cm of water during the crop cycle were inversely related to amounts of water provided on both of 2 sampling dates. The numbers of mites per leaf were inversely related to amounts of water provided on the first of the 2 sampling dates. There was no significant response of leafmine densities with various amounts of water provided.

Open Access

Abstract

The minimum water requirement to produce the greatest number of marketa- bie cut flowers of Chrysanthemum × morifolium Ramat. ‘Manatee Yellow Iceberg’ was 35 cm with trickle irrigation, a 91% reduction in water uses as compared to overhead irrigation systems. Linear responses for fresh weight, dry weight, leaf area, leaf number, and flower number between 13.6 and 40.7 cm of water supplied during production indicated that an additional 6 cm of water would improve marketable stem's quality.

Open Access

Abstract

Damage by leafminer [Liriomyza trifolii (Burgess)], increased linearly as leaf nitrogen increased from 2.2% to 4.0% in spring and fall plantings of Chrysanthemum x morifolium Ramat. ‘Manatee Yellow Iceberg’. The number of marketable stems was related quadratically to leaf nitrogen with maximum yields estimated to occur at 3.6% at harvest.

Open Access

Abstract

Interactive effects of trickle irrigation rates, cultivars and culture (single or pinched stem), on Chrysanthemum × morifolium Ramat. cut flower yield and quality were evaluated. The minimum amount of water required to produce the greatest number of marketable stems of high quality was estimated to be from 0.96 to 1.07 cm/day. Responses to irrigation rate were similar regardless of culture or cultivar variables. Seasonal water use, however, would vary due to differences in cropping time influenced by the production method and choice of cultivars.

Open Access

Three vegetable irrigation systems, semi-closed subirrigation (seepage), fully enclosed subirrigation (seepage), and drip irrigation, were evaluated for use on sandy soils with naturally high water tables to determine comparative irrigation costs for tomato production. Investment, fixed (ownership), and variable (operating) costs were estimated for each irrigation system. The investment costs of the drip irrigation system were significantly greater than those for the semi-closed and fully enclosed irrigation systems. The variable costs, however, for the semi-closed system were considerably less than those for the fully enclosed and drip irrigation systems. The semi-closed irrigation system, therefore, was determined to be the least-cost tomato irrigation system under present fuel cost and nonlimiting water supply conditions.

Free access

Abstract

A study was conducted to investigate environmental factors which affect leaf water potential (LWP) response of chrysanthemums (Chrysanthemum × morifolium Ramat). Meteorological parameters, including air temperature (TEMP), relative humidity (HUM), total solar radiation (RAD), and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) were measured simultaneously as LWP determinations were made diurnally for plants grown with 5 different irrigation rates. Stepwise multiple regression analyses using the meteorological parameters as independent variables and LWP as the dependent variable showed that models developed for each irrigation rate included TEMP, HUM, and PAR as statistically significant (P = 5%) independent variables. Coefficients of determination (R2) for the models ranged from 0.83–0.87. A combined model, including irrigation rate (R) as an independent variable along with the meteorological parameters, revealed that TEMP, PAR, HUM, and R were statistically significant at P = 1% and had an R2 = 0.84. Results reveal environmental factors which must be considered in studies involving LWP measurements for chrysanthemums in order to avoid misinterpretation of data.

Open Access