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  • Author or Editor: C.J. Chang x
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Pierce's disease, caused by the bacterium Xylella fastidiosa Wells et al., is widespread among muscadine grapes (Vitus rotundifolia Michx). To determine whether shoot-tip culture would be effective in eliminating X. fastidiosa, shoot tips of infected grape plants were cultured on Murashige and Skoog medium amended with 9 μm benzyladenine. Shoots and callus that developed tested negative for the presence of X. fastidiosa. Shoot-tip culture appears to be a promising method of obtaining muscadine grape plants free of Pierce's disease. Chemical name used: 6-benzylaminopurine (benzyladenine).

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Screening of muscadine grape (Vitis rotundifolia) plants in vineyards has revealed that many plants carry Xylella fastidiosa; under suitable conditions, this bacterium causes Pierce's disease which can result in considerable loss. To determine whether propagation of muscadine through shoot tips would eliminate X. fastidiosa, plants were injected with this bacterium. After demonstrating infection, shoot tips were collected and cultured. according to the technique of Barlass and Skene (1978). Plants which were regenerated were found to be free of the bacterium. To determine whether this shoot-tip culture technique would be effective for propagation of a diverse group of muscadines, 19 cultivars were tested. Three of the cultivars failed to produce any plants, and several others reproduced at a low rate of efficiency. In an attempt to improve the rate of regeneration, several modifications to the technique were tested. For most cultivars, better initiation occurred on liquid medium, more shoots were produced with BA than with 2iP, and the addition of adenine sulfate and sodium phosphate improved the regeneration frequency.

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Cryopreservation of pollen from two ginseng species —Panax ginseng L. and P. quinquefolium L.—was studied. Freezing anthers that served as pollen carriers to –40C before liquid N storage affected pollen viability little after liquid N storage. Anther moisture content affected pollen viability significantly when stored in liquid N. The ideal anther moisture content to carry pollen for liquid N storage was 32% to 26% for P. ginseng and 27% to 17% for P. quinquefolium. Viability of pollen from P. quinquefolium anthers with 25.3% moisture content changed little after 11 months of liquid N storage.

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Abstract

The mungbean [Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek] is an important short-duration annual grain legume. Mungbean is grown principally for its edible dry seeds, which are high in protein, easily digested, and prepared in numerous forms for human consumption; e.g., as a green vegetable and for sprouts. Other attributes of the crop include drought tolerance, high lysine content as compared to cereal grains, low production of flatulence, and wide adaptability. Commercial production occurs throughout Asia, Australia, the West Indies, South America, and tropical and subtropical Africa. In North America, production is centered in northern Texas and Oklahoma. Annual world mungbean production is estimated at 1.4 million t harvested from ≈3.4 million ha (1). In the United States >50 million kg of bean sprouts are produced annually from 8.3 million kg of mungbean seeds (4).

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