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- Author or Editor: C.E. Sams x
‘Delicious’ apples (Malus domestica Borkh.) were pressure-infiltrated (68.95 kPa) above atmospheric at harvest with CaCl2, MgCl2, or SrCl2. After 5 months in storage at 0°C, the fruit were removed, wound-inoculated with a conidial suspension of Penicillium expansum, and kept for 7 days at 20°. Fruit then were rated for decay severity, ethylene production, respiration, firmness, and injury, and analyzed for the concentration of the appropriate cation. Calcium was the optimum cation for reducing decay, maintaining fruit firmness, and suppressing ethylene production. Cation treatments had little effect on respiration, and Mg was the only cation that caused distinctive injury to the fruit surface.
Four-year-old `Gala' and `Widjit' apple trees with significant apple aphid populations were sprayed to runoff on 13 May 1994 with 0%, 0.5%, 1.0%, or 2.0% (v/v) emulsified degummed soybean oil (SO) or with 1.0% petroleum (dormant) oil (PO). Treatments were arranged in a randomized complete-block design with five single-tree replications. Apple aphid populations were determined on 10 tagged shoots per tree. The top fully expanded leaf of two randomly selected shoots per tree were tagged and net photosynthesis (Pn) and transpiration (Tr) measured. Trees treated with SO or PO had <20% as many aphids after treatment as nontreated trees. Trees treated with 2% SO had lower Pn and Tr than the control for 18 days after treatment. Spraying 0.1% or 0.5% SO caused less initial reduction of Pn than 2.0% SO, and the effect was shorter lasting. Four-year-old `Oregon Spur' and `Empire' were sprayed with 0%, 0.1%, 0.5%, 1.0% SO or PO on 26 June. Treatments were arranged in a randomized complete-block design with four single-tree replications. Pn rates of trees treated with 0.1% to 1.0% soybean oil were <40% of nontreated trees the day after treatment, but recovered to >80% of control in 5 days.
Emulsions of degummed soybean (Glycine max L.) oil were compared to a petroleum oil emulsion for efficacy against winter populations of San Jose scale [Quadraspidiotus perniciosus (Comstock); Homoptera: Diaspididae] and European red mite [Panonychus ulmi (Koch); Acari: Tetranychidae] on dormant apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) trees and terrapin scale [Mesolecanium nigrofasciatum (Pergande); Homoptera: Coccidae] on dormant peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch.] trees. In laboratory tests, more than 94% of San Jose scale was killed on stems dipped for 1 second in 5.0% or 7.5% soybean oil or 5.0% petroleum oil. Mortality of terrapin scale exceeded 93% on peach stems dipped for 1 second in 7.5% soybean oil or 5.0% petroleum oil. No European red mite eggs survived on apple stems dipped for 1 second in 2.5%, 5.0%, or 7.5% soybean oil, or 5.0% petroleum oil. In field tests, >95% of San Jose scale died on apple trees sprayed with one application of 2.5% petroleum oil or 5.0% soybean oil; two applications of these treatments or 2.5% soybean oil killed all San Jose scales. One or two applications of 2.5% petroleum oil or 5.0% soybean oil killed 85% and 98%, respectively, of the terrapin scales on peach trees. Soybean oil shows promise as a substitute for petroleum oil for winter control of three very destructive fruit tree pests.
Treatments of 0, 10, 20, 30, or 40% (v/v) refined (salad) or crude soybean oil or 0, 5, 10, 15, or 20% petroleum (dormant) oil at 0, 5, 10, 15, or 20% were sprayed until drip on `Smoothee' apple trees on 27 February 1991. The internal carbon dioxide concentration was elevated and the oxygen content reduced within one day in buds-twigs treated with oil and remained influenced for up to 12 days. All oil treatments delayed fruit bud development. The lowest tested concentration of soybean oil (either crude or refined) resulted in the greatest delay in bud development and the greatest delay in bloom (approximately 4 days). Crude soybean oil treatment resulted in less damage to flower buds than petroleum oil.
Net photosynthetic rate (Pn) of leaves of sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L. cv. Montmorency) was greater for leaves between nodes 9 and 13 than for either older, mature leaves or newly expanding leaves on the same shoot. For individual leaves, Pn reached maximum when the leaf was greater than 80% expanded, remained constant for 2 to 4 weeks, then gradually declined. Hyperbolic and parabolic response curves were observed in response to light and temperature, respectively. Maximum Pn occurred at light intensities between 800–1200 μEm−2s−1. Optimum temperature ranged with light level and vapor pressure deficit (YPD), but was generally between 15 to 30°C. Pn increased as CO2 concentration increased between 0 and 600 ppm, the CO2 compensation point being about 80 ppm. Under optimum conditions Pn ranged between 30 to 35 mg CO2 dm−2 hr−1.
`Redhaven' peach trees at the Knoxville Experiment Station were sprayed to runoff on 3 February 1993 with single applications of 0, 2.5, 5.0, 10.0, or 15.0% (v/v) degummed soybean oil with 0.6% Latron AG 44M emulsifier. Treatments were arranged in a randomized complete block design with 6 single tree replications. The internal CO2 concentration of treated twigs was elevated the first day and continued to be significantly higher than the control through the fifth day following treatment. Respiration rates of soybean oil treated buds-twigs were lower than the control for the first eight days after treatment. Flower bud and bloom development were delayed by treatment of trees with 5.0 to 15.0% soybean oil. Treatment with 5.0% oil delayed bloom approximately 4 days. The greatest delay (approximately 6 days) occurred after treatment with 10.0 or 15.0% oil. Yield was reduced and fruit size increased as the concentration of soybean oil was increased. Optimum fruit size was achieved with the 5.0% soybean oil treatment.
Spurs of `Starkspur Delicious' trees were dipped in 0, 3, 6, 9 or 12% petroleum oil (dormant oil) or soybean oil emulsions on 26 January 1993. The spurs were cooled at 3C/hr until -9C or kept at 21C. After treatment, the flower buds on spurs were forced at 20C for 11 days and then dissected. The cambium and xylem of the spurs and the interior of the flower buds were rated for damage as indicated by browning. The experiment was repeated at the silver tip stage of buds (early March) except that treated spurs were exposed to 20C, -6C, or -9C. Neither the oil treatments nor low temperature exposure caused visual damage to flower buds or cambium in January. However, the oil treatments damaged flower buds at the silver tip stage (March). Neither petroleum or soybean oil caused visible damage to the xylem or cambium of the spurs.
Dormant `Georgia Belle' peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch.] trees were sprayed in early February 1992 with single applications of 0%, 2.5%, 5.0%, 10.0%, or 20.0% (v/v) crude soybean oil. `Redhaven' trees were sprayed in February 1993 with single applications of 0%, 2.5%, 5.0%, 10.0%, or15% degummed soybean oil. Additional treatments of two applications of 2.5% or 5.0% oil were included each year. Both crude and degummed soybean oil treatments interfered with escape of respiratory CO2 from shoots and increased internal CO2 concentrations in shoots for up to 8 days compared to untreated trees. Respiration rates, relative to controls, were decreased for 8 days following treatment, indicating a feedback inhibition of respiration by the elevated CO2. Thus, an internal controlled atmosphere condition was created. Ethylene evolution was elevated for 28 days after treatment. Flower bud development was delayed by treating trees with 5% crude or degummed soybean oil. Trees treated with 10% crude or degummed soybean oil bloomed 6 days later than untreated trees. Repeated sprays of one half concentration delayed bloom an additional four days in 1992, but < 1 day in 1993 compared to a single spray of the same total concentration. Application of soybean oil caused bud damage and reduced flower bud density (number of flower buds/cm branch length) at anthesis. In a trial comparing petroleum oil and degummed soybean oil, yields of trees treated with 6% or 9% soybean oil were 17% greater than the untreated trees and 29%more than petroleum treated trees. These results suggest that applying soybean oil delays date of peach bloom and may be used as a bloom thinner.
Our research has previously shown that soybean oil can substitute for petroleum oil for controlling insects on fruit trees. Soybean oil may also be a safe, environmentally friendly pesticide to use on nursery stock. The objectives of these experiments were to evaluate phytotoxicity of soybean oil to nursery stock and efficacy for mite control. Four replications of container-grown plants of `Alberta' spruce, `Emerald' arborvitae, `Leyland' cypress, Canadian hemlock, and `Andorra' juniper were sprayed on 26 Mar. with 0%, 1.0%, 2.0%, or 3.0% soybean oil; or 2.0% petroleum oil. None of the oil treatments caused phytotoxicity. The same plants were sprayed on 1 Aug. with 0%, 1.0%, 2.0%, or 3.0% soybean oil. Application of 1% or 2% soybean oil appeared to be non-phytotoxic to spruce, but 3% soybean oil caused slight terminal necrosis. Arborvitae, cypress, hemlock, and juniper were not injured by spraying 1% to 3% soybean oil in the summer. Container-grown burning bush plants with mite infestations were sprayed on 20 Sept. with 0%, 1.0%, 2.0%, or 3.0% soybean oil; or with 1.0% SunSpray petroleum oil. Container-grown mite-infested `Andorra' juniper plants received the same treatments, except for the 3% soybean oil. Application of 1% or 2% soybean oil to burning bush or to juniper shrubs resulted in >97% and 87% control of mites 7 and 14 days, respectively, after treatment.
`Golden Delicious' apples (Malus ×domestica Borkh.) were pressure-infiltrated after harvest with 0%, 1%, 2%, 3%, or 4% CaCl2 solutions (w/v) and the chemical composition of the cell wall of the cortical tissue 2 to 4 mm under the epidermis was studied. The mineral composition of the control cell wall (0% CaCl2) was not affected by the pressure infiltration process. In addition, no significant change was noticed in cell wall associated protein, uronic acid, total polysaccharides, or non-cellulosic neutral sugar contents except for xylose and rhamnose, which decreased (-25%) and increased (+20%), respectively. When apples were infiltrated with CaCl2, Ca content of the cell wall increased and maximum accumulation was achieved with a 2% CaCl2 solution. Calcium infiltration also induced a two-fold increase in Na, a 27% decrease in P, and a 40% decrease in protein content. These data suggest that chemical changes occurring after Ca infiltration are not related to pressure infiltration alone, but are mainly due to the Ca accumulation in the cell wall after pressure infiltration of CaCl2 solutions. Saturation of the available binding sites for Ca occurred in the cell wall when fruit were infiltrated with 2% CaCl2, as no further significant changes in the cell wall chemical composition was detected in fruits infiltrated with 3% or 4% CaCl2.