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  • Author or Editor: C. W. Reynolds x
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Abstract

Tomato (Lycopericon esculentum Mill.) and cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. Capitata group) transplants were grown in peat-vermiculite (P-V) or in media containing sewage sludge compost from either a residential, low metal (LM) or industrially contaminated, high metal (HM) source. The transplant quality (stem diameter, fresh, and dry weight) of plants grown in P-V and LM were similar. Transplants grown in HM media were small, less-developed, and exhibited symptoms of heavy metal phytotoxicity. The concentrations of Zn, Fe, Mn, Cu, Pb, Cd, and Ni in tomato and of Zn, Cu, Cd, and Ni in cabbage plants grown in HM media were significantly higher than those in transplants grown in LM media. The addition of peatmoss to LM media had little influence on media pH or the heavy metal concentrations in transplants. However, peatmoss lowered the pH of HM media and thus the concentrations of Zn, Mn, Cu, and Ni in tomato and Zn and Mn in cabbage transplants increased. Concentrations of Zn and Cu in tomatoes and Zn in cabbage were above phytotoxic levels.

Open Access

Abstract

Transplant quality, as measured by height and dry weight, of cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. Capitata group) and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) was lower for plants grown in media containing sewage sludge compost with a high heavy-metal concentration (HM) than for plants grown in peat-vermiculite (P-V) or low-metal (LM) sewage sludge compost media. Compost source had no significant effect on transplant quality of muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.) seedlings. Marketable yield of cabbage, tomato, or muskmelon was similar regardless of the media used to grow the transplants. The concentration of Zn, Cu, Mn, Ni, and Cd were significantly higher in transplants grown in HM media than in those grown in LM media. With the exception of Cd, metal levels in transplants grown in LM media were similar to those grown in P-V. Transplant media had little influence on the heavy-metal concentrations found in either foliar samples or the edible portions of the crops studied. Heavy-metal concentrations in foliar samples of all 3 crops were lower than those found in transplants. The lowest concentrations were found in tomato and muskmelon fruit, and in cabbage heads. The Cd concentrations in edible portions were very low regardless of the source of compost in the transplant media, indicating that sewage sludge composts, particularly those low in heavy metals, can be used safely in the growing media of vegetable transplants.

Open Access

Descriptive analysis was used to compare sensory color, flavor, and textural attributes of Georgia-grown carrots. The relation between °Brix, total sugar, and intensity perception of sweetness was also studied. Significant differences existed in the perception of sweet taste and of color, and in levels of °Brix and percentage of sugar among all cultivars, but perceived intensity of sweetness was not related to the levels of °Brix or percentage of sugar. No significant differences were found among cultivars in harsh carroty, green, astringent, and earthy flavors, and in the perception of sour taste. Intensity ratings for perceived hardness were nonsignificant in either study. Differences in sensory profiles existed among all cultivars, but no trend was evident in the relation of sweetness to harsh flavor.

Free access

Bermudagrass, Cynodon spp. is one of the most commonly grown turfgrass genera in the southern United States having excellent drought tolerance, but poor tolerance to shade. Developing cultivars tolerant to shade would allow bermudagrass to become more prevalent in home lawns or other recreational areas in the southeast, where trees dominate the landscape. In this field study, nine accessions collected from Pretoria, South Africa were evaluated for their ability to grow under shade with varying fertility treatments. These accessions and cultivars ‘Celebration’, ‘TifGrand’, and ‘Tifway’ were evaluated under 0%, 63%, and 80% continuous shade during 2011–12. For both years, significant differences among shade levels, genotypes, and the interaction of the two were observed. As expected, the progression from 0% to 63% to 80% shade reduced normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), percent turfgrass cover (TC), and turf quality (TQ) readings for all accessions. Some genotypes, however, were able to maintain adequate quality and aggressiveness under 63% shade. ‘Celebration’, WIN10F, and STIL03 performed better than ‘Tifway’ (P ≤ 0.05), the susceptible control. Overall, our results indicate that there are promising genotypes among the bermudagrass materials collected from South Africa. These accessions represent additional sources of shade hardiness to be used in bermudagrass breeding. Furthermore, higher nitrogen fertility provided increased NDVI and TQ in some instances suggesting an added benefit of fertility under low-light conditions. However, the increased economic value attributed to the added inputs associated with these increases is outweighed by the low impacts offered.

Free access