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- Author or Editor: C. Riegel x
One of the proposed alternative chemicals for methyl bromide is 1,3-D. The most common forms of 1,3-D products are cis- or trans-isomers of 1,3-D with the fungicidal agent, chloropicrin, containing such mixtures as 65% 1,3-D and 35% chloropicrin (C-35). Soil fumigants are commonly applied under a polyethylene film in Florida raised bed vegetable production. Much of the research regarding cropping system effects of alternative fumigants to methyl bromide has focused primarily on plant growth parameters, with little regard to the atmospheric fate of these chemicals. The objective of this research was to determine both the atmospheric emission of 1,3-D under different plastic film treatments and to evaluate effects of application rates of 1,3-D and C-35 on plant pests, growth, and yield of Sunex 9602 summer squash (Cucurbita pepo L.). Results showed that use of a high barrier polyethylene film (or virtually impermeable film - VIF) greatly reduced fumigant emission compared to ground cover with conventional polyethylene films or uncovered soil. Summer squash seedling survival was a severe problem in several of the 1,3-D alone treatments where no fungicidal agent was added, whereas C-35 resulted in excellent disease control at both full and one-half of the recommended application rates for this chemical. Both 1,3-D and C-35 provided good plant stands and higher yields when applied at their recommended application rates. However, all squash yields were lower than typical squash production levels due to late planting and early winter frost kill. Chemical names used: 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D); trichloronitropropene (chloropicrin).