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Abstract

The rooting of strawberry runner tips was studied in relation to soil moisture tension in the rooting medium and soil moisture supplies to the mother plants. In the first weeks of runner establishment the rate and amount of top growth was controlled largely by the moisture supply to the mother plant. Growth was decreased as moisture stress on the mother plant was increased. For the most part, root habit of the runner was independent of influence from the mother plant. Variations in soil moisture tension in the rooting medium had little influence on top growth of the runner except for leaf area but did influence root growth significantly. Secondary root growth was restricted by both very wet and very dry soil conditions. The results confirmed that the initial number of main roots formed and their penetration was independent of moisture tension in the rooting medium. Organic matter additions to the rooting medium did not influence moisture effects appreciably.

Open Access

Weeds are found throughout the orchard or vineyard floor. They are controlled mostly in a band down the tree or vine row with cultivation, or more frequently with one or more applications of one or more herbicides. Instead of resident vegetation, planted cover crops of choice are being planted to “control” the vegetation. Two aspects of cover crops for weed control have been studied. First, the selective herbicides, sethoxydim, fluazifop, 2,4-D and combinations have been applied to selectively shift plant species within the vineyard to more desirable cover crops. Secondly, cover crops have been planted into prepared soil, grown for biomass, chopped and transferred as a mulch to the tree or vine row. A mixture of cultivated oat, purple and common vetch grown between the rows, chopped and blown into clean soil under trees or vines has effectively controlled annual weeds. The quantity of cover crop biomass produced is critical for adequate weed control.

Free access

Polyphenols were analyzed in expanding buds and developing leaves of pecan [Carya illinoensis (Wangenh.) C. Koch] cultivars with varying responses to Cladosporium caryigenum (Ell. et Lang. Gottwald), the organism causing scab. Plant tissue extracts were examined by high-performance liquid chromatography using a water: methanol gradient to separate polyphenolic components on a C-18 reversed phase column. A diode-array detector was used to identify profile components by retention times and computer matching of ultraviolet spectra to standard compounds in a library. Concentrations of these polyphenols were compared throughout the growing season in leaves of pecan cultivars with low (`Elliott'), intermediate (`Stuart'), and high (`Wichita') susceptibility to scab; during susceptibility to infection by Cladosporium caryigenum from 16 cultivars; and in `Wichita' leaf discs with and without scab lesions. The major polyphenolic constituent of tissues for all cultivars was identified as hydrojuglone glucoside, which was detected in intact buds and leaves throughout the growing season. Hydrojuglone glucoside concentration increased concomitantly with leaf expansion and then declined slowly. Juglone was barely, if at all, detectable, regardless of leaf age. No correlation was found between cultivar susceptibility to pecan scab and the levels of either juglone or hydrojuglone glucoside in the healthy leaves of 16 cultivars. Leaf tissue with scab lesions had significantly higher juglone and hydrojuglone glucoside levels than leaf discs without scab lesions. Chemical names used: 4-8-dihydroxy-1-naphthyl b-d-glucopyranoside (hydrojuglone glucoside); 1,5-hydroxy-naphthoquinone (juglone).

Free access

Eastern filbert blight (EFB) of European hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.), caused by the pyrenomycete Anisogramma anomala (Peck) E. Müller, is a major disease problem and production constraint in Oregon’s Willamette Valley. Host genetic resistance is viewed as the most economical means of controlling this disease. Marker-assisted selection has been extensively used for ‘Gasaway’ resistance in the hazelnut breeding program at Oregon State University (OSU). Concern over potential breakdown of this single resistance gene prompted a search for new sources of resistance. Selection OSU 408.040 showed no signs or symptoms of the fungus after a series of disease inoculations, and resistance was transmitted to half of its offspring, indicating control by a dominant allele at a single locus. In this study, we identified six random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and 11 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers linked to EFB resistance from OSU 408.040. The new markers supplement the previously identified amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers. A linkage map constructed in the progeny OSU 245.098 × OSU 408.040 spanned a distance of 19.5 cM with the resistance locus cosegregating with AFLP marker A8-150 and located between SSR markers LG675 and LG682. Using SSR markers as anchor loci, OSU 408.040 resistance was assigned to linkage group 6 (LG6). Comparison with the previously mapped ‘Gasaway’ resistance locus showed that resistance from OSU 408.040 maps to the same location.

Free access

Two studies were conducted to evaluate recycled newspaper mulch for landscape plantings. In the first study, two paper products (pellets and crumble) were tested at three depths. Application of either 25 or 50 mm provided excellent control of prostrate spurge. Of the four annuals grown, ageratum exhibited severe stunting of roots and shoots. In the second study, three annual species were mulched with the two recycled paper products applied at 25 mm each and adjusted with P at 0, 3.75, or 7.5 ppm to bind excess Al. When no P was added, ageratum growth was about half that of the control plants. Addition of P at either rate resulted in similar growth compared to control plants. Marigold and geranium were less affected by recycled paper mulch; however, when P was added growth was always similar to nonmulched control plants.

Free access

Eastern filbert blight (EFB), caused by the pyrenomycete Anisogramma anomala (Peck) E. Müller, is a devastating disease of European hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) in the Pacific Northwest. Host genetic resistance from ‘Gasaway’ has been used extensively for breeding hazelnuts at Oregon State University. Concern over the durability of this single-gene resistance prompted a search for new sources of resistance. In this study, 86 accessions from 11 countries were evaluated for their response to greenhouse inoculation with the pathogen. Nine accessions showed complete resistance, including one from Chile (‘Amarillo Tardio’), two from Serbia (‘Crvenje’ and ‘Uebov’), one from southern Russia (OSU 495.072) and five from Moscow, Russia. These new sources of EFB resistance have geographically diverse origins and will broaden the genetic base of EFB-resistant hazelnut germplasm. The previously reported resistance of ‘Grand Traverse’ from Michigan and the susceptibility of ‘Closca Molla’ from Spain were confirmed.

Free access

The hundred-year history of the european hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) industry in the Pacific northwestern United States is threatened by eastern filbert blight (EFB) caused by the fungus Anisogramma anomala (Peck) E. Müller. Marker-assisted selection has been extensively used for ‘Gasaway’ resistance in the hazelnut breeding program at Oregon State University. Concern over possible breakdown of this single resistance gene provides an incentive to look for new sources of resistance. OSU 759.010, a selection from the Republic of Georgia, has remained free of EFB after inoculations over several years. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers linked to resistance were identified by screening primers against three resistant seedlings, three susceptible seedlings, and the parents of a segregating seedling population. For the progeny OSU 759.010 × OSU 653.068, 13 linked markers were identified. The markers most closely linked to resistance were 695-1800 on the proximal side and H12-640, 373-700, 349-450, and F08-700 on the distal side. Four of the five markers also segregated in the progeny OSU 759.010 × OSU 665.076, whereas H12-640 was monomorphic. Segregation for disease response in the first population showed a surplus of resistant seedlings, approaching a 3:1 ratio, with closely linked RAPD markers showing similar ratios. In the second population, the observed segregation for disease response and associated markers did not deviate from the expected 1:1 ratio. Based on cosegregation with simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers, resistance from OSU 759.010 was assigned to linkage group 2. Resistance to EFB from ‘Gasaway’ and ‘Ratoli’ was previously mapped to linkage groups 6 and 7, respectively. Therefore, OSU 759.010 provides a novel source of EFB resistance and markers 695-1800, 373-700, 349-450, and F08-700 have potential for use in marker-assisted selection to pyramid EFB resistance alleles.

Free access

Abstract

Vegetable garden planning software for personal computers is gaining in popularity (3). The program described herein (GARD-PLAN) provides a listing of vegetable crops from which the user makes selections. Cultural recommendations are made, and yields are projected based on the selections made in the program. A 3-year study to determine the dollar value of vegetable gardens in the 40 counties in North Dakota showed that the average value per garden was about $400, with the highest-valued garden at over $1200 (1). Therefore, vegetable gardening can result in significant savings relative to fresh produce purchased during the growing season.

Open Access

Excessive moisture is a problem in evaluating recycled paper products as mulch to replace other common mulch materials and in landscape and container uses. To isolate the water associated with soil and/or media, two recycled paper products, pellets or crumble, were used as mulches in trade gallon containers in a greenhouse. Pine bark, pellets, and crumble needed to obtain standard mulch depth were enclosed in plastic mesh. These mulches were placed in containers that contained 1 kg of a 7 pine bark : 1 sand media. All containers were saturated with tap water for 24 hours. Mulches were placed on each container and allowed to drain for 1 hour. Weights of media, mulch, and media and mulch were obtained every 24 hours for a total of 312 hours. Water content of the media was not influenced by any of the mulch treatments. Water content of the paper products was increased by a factor of two. Pine bark mulch water content was zero 96 hours after an initial dry down cycle began, while the water content of pellet and crumble were 100 and 90 cm of water. Total water content of the media plus the mulch was increased by 30% to 35% when compared to pine bark mulch alone. However, the increase was associated with the water content of the waste paper mulch.

Free access

European hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) is a significant crop in Oregon, where 99% of United States hazelnuts are produced. Eastern filbert blight (EFB) caused by Anisogramma anomala (Peck) E. Müller is an important disease that infects the trees, reduces yield, and causes premature death. Managing the disease through cultural methods and fungicide applications is laborious and expensive, and genetic host resistance is considered the most viable option for control. Genetic resistance from ‘Gasaway’ has been used to develop resistant cultivars including Yamhill and Jefferson, but concern about the durability of this single resistance gene stimulated a search for additional sources of resistance. This study used three recently identified sources of EFB resistance: ‘Culplà’ from Spain, ‘Crvenje’ from Serbia, and OSU 495.072 from southern Russia. RAPD markers linked to resistance from ‘Gasaway’ were absent in all three accessions. Disease response was noted in segregating progenies following greenhouse or structure inoculation, and the resistance loci were mapped using microsatellite markers. In only four of the nine progenies did segregation for disease response fit the ratio of 1 resistant:1 susceptible expected for a single locus, a heterozygous resistant parent, and a dominant allele for resistance. Three progenies showed an excess of resistant seedlings while two showed a deficiency of resistant seedlings. The reciprocal translocations reported in several leading hazelnut cultivars may be present in the parents of the studied progenies, and affecting the segregation ratios. Microsatellite marker A614, previously mapped to linkage group (LG) 6, was closely linked to resistance from all three sources. Maps were constructed for LG6 for each resistant parent using microsatellite markers. The three resistance loci mapped to the same region on LG6 where resistance from ‘Gasaway’ and OSU 408.040 are located. The resistance alleles in all five accessions may be the same, or more likely are a cluster of different resistance genes in the same region. Markers LG628, LG610, and LG696 will be useful to breed new hazelnut cultivars with resistance from Culplà, Crvenje, and OSU 495.072.

Free access