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Abstract

Naturally cooled lily plants from bulbs potted with their apices 1/2—inch deep or deeper, sustained no cold damage when exposed to temperatures as low as 23°F. Shallower bulb plantings and exposure of a portion of the bulb resulted in cold injury. The number of killed and damaged plants increased with increased bulb exposure. Planting of the bulb with its apex 1/2—inch deep or shallower reduced forcing time by four days as compared to bulbs placed on the drainage gravel at the bottom of the pots. Depths of 1/4 exposure or deeper had no effect on plant height nor any consistent effect on flower bud number.

Open Access

Abstract

‘Harson’ lily bulbs were precooled at 45 to 50°F for 0, 2, 4 and 6 weeks in damp peat (68% moisture) or dry peat (8% moisture) and then soaked for 2 hr in a 900 ppm solution of GA or tap water prior to forcing. Bulbs precooled in damp peat for 4 to 6 weeks had the shortest stems and earliest flowering. Four weeks precooling in damp peat hastened stem emergence and flowering but reduced flower no. as compared to those precooled 6 weeks in dry peat. Bulbs GA treated and precooled 2 weeks flowered about 4 weeks earlier without a decrease in flower no. compared with bulbs precooled for 0, 2, 4 and 6 weeks. Bulbs precooled 4 weeks in dry peat and treated with GA emerged and flowered as early as those precooled in damp peat for 4 weeks without GA or those in dry peat 6 weeks with or without GA. GA treatment hastened flowering similar to that caused by precooling in damp peat.

Open Access

Abstract

Combinations of temp, photoperiod, and succinic acid-2,2-dimethylhydrazide (SADH) treatments were applied to plants of azalea cvs. Red Wing and Alaska during the flower bud development period. Plant quality as indicated by terminal and lateral flower bud development and lack of lateral vegetative growth was generally enhanced by SADH treatment and a 9-hr photoperiod (SD) at 65°F min temp. Quality of ‘Red Wing’ plants was less affected by deviation from this environment than those of ‘Alaska’. Flowering of plants not refrigerated at 45-50°F was hastened by 18-hr photoperiods at 65°F following 4 or 6 weeks of 65°F-SD. Exposure to 50°F min temp during early bud development brought about changes in morphology of ‘Red Wing’ flowers.

Open Access

Abstract

Four-hour dark period interruptions of incandescent, red and far-red radiation each night during natural cooling hastened flowering by 22, 15 and 8 days, respectively, over natural daylengths. No additional acceleration occurred when night breaks were applied during natural cooling and forcing as compared to lighting during natural cooling only. The accelerating effect of night breaks was found to be the response to light alone and not total radiant energy or temperature. Bloom date acceleration by night breaks of incandescent light was due to a proportionate acceleration in flower bud initiation. For every week of acceleration there was an average decrease of 2 flower buds and 7 leaves per stem. Bulb potting depth also influenced bloom date. The depth effects on flowering time were independent of lighting treatments. A 4-day acceleration was obtained by setting the bulb nose at the soil line as compared to a 2 inch planting depth.

Plant height was independently influenced by photoperiod-light quality and by potting depth. Height was only slightly affected by supplemental lighting during natural cooling. After forcing temperatures were reached, red and incandescent lighting caused slight height increases while far-red caused pronounced stem stretching. Exposure of the bulb above the soil at potting reduced plant height at maturity.

Open Access