You are looking at 1 - 8 of 8 items for
- Author or Editor: C. L. Powell x
Two-year-old blueberry plants (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) of 6 cultivars were planted into a peat soil with or without ericoid mycorrhizal fungi inoculation. At the first fruit season, inoculation increased fruit yield by 11 to 92% among the six cultivars.
A trough system was developed to study rates of plant virus transmission by plant parasitic nematodes. Perforated plumber's polyvinyl chloride pipe, 5 cm in diameter, was cut into 48-cm lengths, split longitudinally, and fashioned into troughs to hold soil and common dandelion (Taraxacum officinale Webber) transplants. The first plant in each trough was infected with tomato ringspot virus (TmRSV), followed by 10 uninfected plants spaced at 4-cm intervals. The soil contained a high concentration of Xiphinema rivesi (199 per 100 cm3), a low concentration (16 per 100 cm3), or none. Plants were assayed biweekly for TmRSV. After 42 weeks, transmission rates between the low and high concentrations of nematodes were not significantly different. The subirrigated trough system provided excellent soil conditions for plant growth and sufficient nematode survival to detect virus transmission through 36 weeks.
Graft-transmissible agents found in `Ta Tao 5' peach have been associated with phenological changes, including delay in bloom, reduced shoot vigor, and early autumn defoliation. Peach Latent Mosaic Viroid (PLMVd) is present as a graft-transmissible agent in `Ta Tao 5'. In order to further characterize the changes occurring in trees exposed to PLMVd from `Ta Tao 5' grafts, total fatty acid content was measured for peach buds during chilling accumulation and release from dormancy in `Coronet' peach trees and `Coronet' trees treated with `Ta Tao 5' bud grafts. Palmitic (16:0), stearic (18:0), oleic (18:1), linoleic (18:2), and linolenic (18:3) acids were the major fatty acids in dormant and releasing peach buds of both the controls and treated trees. The degree of unsaturation increased immediately following completion of chilling requirement in both the untreated controls and in the treated trees. However, the desaturation of linoleic acid to linolenic acid was significantly inhibited in the trees treated with `Ta Tao 5' bud grafts, which was accompanied by a concomitant delay in the resumption of growth. The disparity between the control and treated trees in the trend toward increased fatty acid unsaturation continued through the resumption of growth. The changes in degree of fatty acid saturation correlated with a response to forcing conditions and the release from dormancy. The presence of PLMVd in `Coronet' peach trees affects membrane fatty acid saturation during chilling accumulation and dormancy release. These findings suggest that metabolic pathways involving fatty acid desaturation are linked to the phenotypic variation in trees exposed to PLMVd.
Peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch (Peach Group)] trees infected with peach latent mosaic viroid (PLMVd) have been associated with phenological changes including delay in bloom, reduced shoot vigor, and early autumn defoliation. In order to further characterize the changes occurring in trees inoculated with PLMVd, total fatty acid content was measured for floral buds during release from dormancy in `Coronet' peach trees. Palmitic (16:0), stearic (18:0), oleic (18:1), linoleic (18:2), and linolenic (18:3) acids were the major fatty acids in dormant and releasing peach buds of both control and PLMVd-inoculated (VI) trees. The degree of unsaturation increased immediately following release from dormancy in both the control and VI trees. However, desaturation of linoleic acid to linolenic acid was significantly inhibited in VI trees, which was accompanied by a concomitant delay in the resumption of growth. The disparity between the control and VI trees in the progression of increased fatty acid unsaturation continued through petal fall. The presence of PLMVd in `Coronet' peach trees slowed membrane fatty acid desaturation during release from dormancy and suggested that metabolic pathways involving fatty acid desaturation were linked to the delayed phenology of the VI trees.
This paper describes the climatic and cropping conditions in the major peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] producing areas in the southeastern United States in 1996. The peach and nectarine crop was the smallest since 1955 due to a series of unusually cold temperatures in February, March, and April. Crop set was not strictly a function of late blooming. No variety produced a full crop across the region. Many reputedly hardy peaches cropped poorly. The only peach or nectarine varieties that produced substantial crops in multiple locations were `La Premiere', `Ruston Red', and `Contender'. Cropping ability of some breeding selections shows that peach frost tolerance may be improved further.
Intensive selection to improve vase life was performed on a sample population of Gerber ×hybrida Hort. from a broad source of germplasm. Progeny of a 5 × 5 diallel cross yielded estimates of narrow sense heritability (h2 = 0.28) and broad sense heritability (H2 = 0.28) for vase life based on a mean of 1.96 measurements per plant. Additive gene action is postulated to control this character since the difference between total genotypic variance and additive genetic variance components was small. Repeatability (r = 0.57) based on a single measurement per plant was moderately high. Heritability estimates were also determined based on 1, 2, 3, 5, and ∞ measurements per plant. Heritability ranged from 22% to 39%.
There are a limited number of peach and nectarine cultivars available with chilling requirements that perform well in the Gulf Coast area of Alabama. A test planting of 40 peach and 13 nectarine cultivars was established in 1985 at the Gulf Coast Substation at Fairhope, Ala. The plot was prepared and trees grown according to commercial procedures. Blocks of four trees of each cultivar were planted on a 6 x 6-m spacing. Chill hours were calculated each year based on number of hours at or below 7.3 °C; starting from and including the first 10 consecutive days a total of 50 hours were accumulated to 15 Feb. Data collected included date of full bloom, first harvest date, and total yield. Fruit were measured or rated for skin color, attractiveness, firmness, stone freeness, pubescence, flesh color, dessert quality, shape, weight, percentage with split pits, and occurrence of malformed sutures and extended tips. All cultivars were evaluated for 9 years (1987–95). The best performing varieties are discussed.