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  • Author or Editor: C. L. Parish x
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Abstract

Blister bark, a scaly bark-type disorder of ‘Delicious’ apples (Malus domestica Borkh.) is shown to consist of 3 similar disorders. Two of these, blister bark 1 (the one most commonly encountered in the Northwestern United States) and blister bark 2, are graft transmissible. The 3rd disorder, blister bark 3, was not transmitted. The symptoms are described and the differences discussed. Another bark disorder, a form of internal bark necrosis, is shown to be graft-transmissible. A key to differentiate the blister bark complex is presented.

Open Access

The initial investment of a precision seeder is cost prohibitive to many small vegetable growers. This study was initiated to evaluate the use of a relatively inexpensive bulk seeder to plant cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. Capitata). Cabbage was direct-seeded with a precision seeder or a relatively inexpensive bulk seeder. Treatments with the bulk seeder consisted of blending viable hybrid seed with nonviable, nonhybrid seed at several ratios to reduce hybrid seed cost and optimize plant spacing. Seed ratios represented 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 100% viable seed. Pre-thin plant stands of 30 and 40% hybrid seed treatments were similar to precision-seeded plant stands. Average head size was greatest with 10, 20, and 30% hybrid seed ratios. Marketable yields were similar for all hybrid seed ratios except the 10% ratio. Production costs per acre for the precision seeder were between that of the 40 and 50% ratios. Net income for 40% hybrid seed was similar to that of the precision seeder.

Free access

Cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. Capitata) was direct-seeded with a precision seeder or with a bulk seeder. Treatments with the bulk seeder consisted of blending viable, hybrid cabbage seed with nonviable, open-pollinated seed at several ratios to reduce the cost of planting hybrid seed. The study demonstrated that farmers with small acreages can obtain equivalent net income per acre using bulk seeders compared to using more expensive precision seeders. The study also showed that the additional cost per acre of a precision seeder is small compared to other input costs (for the acreage assumptions used here). Low percentages of hybrid seed in the bulk seeder (10% to 50%) were not economical. Precision seeding to a stand reduced the need for thinning labor and resulted in equivalent yields and net income.

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Concerns over ground water, nonpoint pollution, and soil erosion have indicated a need for reduced use of preemergent herbicides and reduced tillage. This study was initiated to determine the feasibility of using postemergent, burndown herbicides under hooded sprayers in the production of southernpeas. Two rates of paraquat, glufosinate, and glyphosate were applied at two application timings. All herbicides controlled rice flatsedge but not goosegrass. Since an untreated strip was left surrounding the drill, complete weed control did not occur in this system. In most cases, delaying application of the herbicides by 2 weeks tended to result in lower yields. However, no differences from a delay in cleaning the hoed check were noted. Plots treated with paraquat at 1.0 pt/A – timing 1 and glufosinate at 7.0 lb a.i./A – timing 2 had yields lower than the hoed check. Based on this study, southernpeas can be grown successfully without the use of a preemergent herbicide by proper timing of a hooded application of a burndown herbicide with proper timing.

Free access

Abstract

A survey for dead spur was made by rating 8600 ‘Delicious’ apple trees (Malus domestica Borkh.) on seedling rootstock in 3 of the 4 major apple-growing areas of Washington. Only ‘Earlistripe Delicious’ was found to be appreciably affected, and no difference in incidence of dead spur was observed among the areas.‘Oregon Spur Delicious’ and ‘Earlistripe Delicious’ were rated on 5 rootstocks and no rootstock effect was detected. Dead spur symptoms on trees of other strains or cultivars and on pollenizer limbs grafted into ‘Earlistripe Delicious’ affected by dead spur suggest the disorder is transmissible. In addition, an association was noticed between cultivars with long leggy-type growth and the occurrence of dead spur.

Open Access

The Precision Cultural System (PCS) developed by the Louisiana Agricultural Experiment Station allows simple and precise cultivation of vegetable crops; however, speed of the cultivators in small vegetable crops has been limited. The standard PCS sweep cultivator was limited to about 1.6–2.4 km·h–1 in small crops because it would throw soil over the crop plants at higher speed. The standard PCS rotary tiller cultivator could operate at 3.2–4.8 km·h–1 in small crops but could not be operated faster in larger crops, due to its tendency to “walk” out of the soil at higher speeds. The standard PCS sweep cultivator was modified by replacing the sweeps between the twin drills with two pairs of straight finger-wheel (“rolling cultivator”) spiders non-angled and in tandem. The finger-wheel gangs on the bed sides were also inactivated by raising them above the soil. The resulting PCS cultivator was successfully operated in very small crop plants (≤25 mm high) at speeds of 8–10 km·h–1 with no crop damage. The cultivator could then be easily refitted for standard sweep cultivation on subsequent passes. No reductions in weed control or yield of mustard, kale, turnip, or spinach were noted when using the high-speed system.

Free access