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  • Author or Editor: C. Frank Williams x
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Abstract

Severely chlorotic ‘Red Delicious’ apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) trees growing on a calcareous soil were treated for iron (Fe) chlorosis with pressure injections of 1.0% (w:w) solutions of ferrous sulfate, ferric citrate, or Fe-Sequestrene-330 (Fe-330). Injections were made in September of 1981 and in April, June, and July of 1983. All treatments increased chlorophyll concentrations compared to controls, and treatments made in September of 1981 and in April and June of 1983 increased shoot growth during the 1983 growing season compared to controls. Although the treatments did result in a temporary increase in foliar Fe content, there was not a strong correlation between foliar Fe and chlorophyll concentration. Ferrous sulfate and Fe-330 were more effective than ferric citrate in alleviating chlorosis. Injections made in April and June of 1983 greatly increased bloom in May of 1984, compared to trees injected in July of 1983 and the untreated controls. Hence, injections should be made early in the season (before July) in order to promote bloom the following growing season.

Open Access

Abstract

Close plant spacing in bush snap beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), sweet corn (Zea mays L.), and onions (Allium cepa L.) resulted in less weed competition, as measured by crop plant reproductive parts, than wider row spacings. Early weed competition was important in all crops but weed competition at any time reduced onion yields significantly. Corn required 2 weeks and bush snap beans 3 weeks of cultivation after emergence to eliminate losses due to weed competition. Fresh weights of weed at harvest time were significantly less (0.8 kg) in plots of bush snap beans at the narrow row spacing than in plots with the medium and wide spacings (2.8 and 2.4 kg) in an 0.81 m2 area.

Open Access

Abstract

A 2-year study involving 15 garden vegetables and 5 different-sized gardens was conducted to assess land, labor, and production efficiency. As garden size increased, total production increased, but yield per unit area decreased. Relative labor inputs varied with garden size, but were greatest for harvesting (38%) followed by planting (23%), miscellaneous (22%), and weeding (17%). The highest production in relationship to labor and land use was obtained with beets, carrots, cucumbers, onions, tomatoes, and summer squash. The poorest yielding crops were pole and bush beans, sweet corn, peas, peppers, and radishes. Total vegetable yield for the 2-year study averaged 6.2 kg/m2.

Open Access

With increased mobile device usage, mobile applications (apps) are emerging as an extension medium, well suited to “place-less” knowledge transfer. Conceptualizing, designing, and developing an app can be a daunting process. This article summarizes the considerations and steps that must be taken to successfully develop an app and is based on the authors’ experience developing two horticulture apps, IPMPro and IPMLite. These apps provide information for major pests and plant care tasks and prompt users to take action on time-sensitive tasks with push notifications scheduled specifically for their location. Topics such as selecting between a web app and a native app, choosing the platform(s) for native apps, and designing the user interface are covered. Whether to charge to download the app or have free access, and navigating the intra- and interinstitutional agreements and programming contract are also discussed. Lastly, the nonprogramming costs such as creating, editing, and uploading content, as well as ongoing app management and updates are discussed.

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Mobile device applications (apps) have the potential to become a mainstream delivery method, providing services, information, and tools to extension clientele. Testing, promoting, and launching an app are key components supporting the successful development of this new technology. This article summarizes the considerations and steps that must be taken to successfully test, promote, and launch an app and is based on the authors’ experience developing two horticulture apps, IPMPro and IPMLite. These apps provide information for major pests and plant care tasks and prompt users to take action on time-sensitive tasks with push notifications scheduled specifically for their location. App testing and evaluation is a continual process. Effective tactics for app testing and evaluation include garnering focus group input throughout app development and postlaunch, in-house testing with simulators, beta testing and the advantages of services that enhance information gained during beta testing, and postlaunch evaluations. Differences in promotional and bulk purchasing options available among the two main device platforms, Android and iOS, are explored as are general preparations for marketing the launch of a new app. Finally, navigating the app submission process is discussed. Creating an app is an involved process, but one that can be rewarding and lead to a unique portal for extension clientele to access information, assistance, and tools.

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Extension and research professionals in the southeastern United States formed the Southern Nursery Integrated Pest Management working group (SNIPM) to foster collaboration and leverage resources, thereby enhancing extension programming, increasing opportunity, and expanding the delivery of specialized expertise to nursery crop growers across a region. Building a productive and lasting working group requires attracting a group of research and extension faculty with complementary expertise, listening to stakeholders, and translating stakeholder needs into grant priorities to help solve problems, all hallmarks of effective teamwork principles. SNIPM has now grown to include 10 U.S. states and 11 institutions and has been awarded seven grants totaling $190,994 since 2009. A striking benefit of working group membership was observed over time: synergy. Greater awareness of individual expertise among SNIPM members, each of whom were focused on different aspects of the nursery production system stimulated multistate extension publications, electronic books (eBooks), mobile device applications (apps), popular press articles, and spin-off research projects when separate foci were combined and directed toward complex challenges. Deliverables achieved from this faculty collaboration include nine peer-reviewed publications, four manuals and books and 23 book chapters, and a combined total of 11 abstracts, conference proceedings and extension publications. To date, the return on investment for SNIPM is one deliverable produced to every $2265.89 in grant funding. SNIPM has also been honored with multiple American Society for Horticultural Science publication awards as well as the Southern Region Integrated Pest Management Center Bright Idea Award for the quality and originality of their project outputs. Continuing to work together toward common goals that bridge technology and serve the nursery industry while supporting each individual member’s program will be crucial to the long-term success of this working group.

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The eriophyid mite, Phyllocoptes fructiphilus, vectors the causal agent, Rose rosette virus (RRV), that results in rose rosette disease. Parts of the southeastern United States have remained free of the disease, except for infected plant material introductions that were eradicated. A survey of sampling points through Alabama, Georgia, and Mississippi (n = 204) revealed the southeastern border of RRV. The presence of RRV in symptomatic plant tissue samples (n = 39) was confirmed by TaqMan-quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). Samples were also collected at every plot for detection of eriophyid mites, specifically for P. fructiphilus. Three different species of eriophyid mites were found to be generally distributed throughout Alabama, Georgia, and Mississippi. Most of these sites (n = 60) contained P. fructiphilus, found further south than previously thought, but in low populations (<10 mites/gram of tissue) south of the RRV line of incidence. Latitude was found to be significantly correlated with the probability of detecting RRV-positive plants, but plant hardiness zones were not. Plot factors such as plant size, wind barriers, and sun exposure were found to have no effect on P. fructiphilus or the presence of RRV. The reason for the absence of RRV and low populations of P. fructiphilus in this southeast region of the United States are unclear.

Open Access