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  • Author or Editor: C. E. Evans x
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Abstract

Marketable tomato yields were influenced more by applied N than by irrigation. Irrigation increased total marketable tomato yields only at the intermediate level. Average yields for the 3-year period by soil water regimes were about 58,300, 70,000, and 68,900 kg/ha for no, intermediate, and high irrigation, respectively. Applied N increased yields, but the increase was limited mainly to the lowest application rate (65 kg/ha) in 1971 and 1972, and to the 2 lowest rates (65 and 130 kg/ha) in 1973. Average yields for the test period by N application rates were about 53,500, 67,100, 69,900, 70,600 and 67,600 kg/ha for 0, 65, 130, 195, and 260 kg/ha rates, respectively. These data indicate that the best combination of N rate and soil water regime was 65 to 130 kg/ha of applied N and supplemental irrigation as needed to maintain 30% or more available water in 0 to 60 cm soil depth.

Open Access

This report presents preliminary data and arguments supporting the investigation and possible adoption of a low-cost method of cherry and grape tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) production. Cherry and grape tomato crops are currently grown using indeterminate or relatively large determinate plants requiring trellising and significant hand labor at harvest. In contrast, processing tomato crops are usually determinate cultivars raised without supporting systems, and they are harvested mechanically. In Summer 2009, a Mississippi trial of home garden tomato cultivars included a compact, mounding yellow-fruited cherry tomato that produced more than 2 kg of fruit per plant in the first harvest. The architecture of the plant, high yield potential, and concentrated set indicate that there is potential to grow commercial cherry and grape tomato crops in much the same way commercial processing tomatoes are grown: unsupported on bare or mulched beds, with once-over harvest. Such a system could reduce the monetary and labor costs of production of cherry and grape tomatoes. Seed companies, tomato growers, and supporting agencies should work together to further investigate the potential of this system of cherry and grape tomato production.

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Abstract

Field studies were conducted on an Orangeburg sandy loam soil (Typic Paleudults) in central Alabama to determine the effects of tillage methods (complete, strip, and no-tillage), nitrogen rates (100 and 200 kg/ha), and rye (Secale cereale) cover crop on growth and yield of tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.). Marketable tomato yields tended to decrease as amount of tillage decreased. The 3-year average yields for complete-tillage, strip-tillage, and no-tillage treatments were 29.9, 27.0, and 26.0 MT/ha, respectively. There was no consistent effect from N-rate on marketable yields. Average yields from the lower N-rate were greater than the higher N-rate in the two driest years and were similar or higher from the higher N-rate in the year of more average rainfall. Marketable yields tended to be greater on no-rye plots than on rye plots, with yields averaging 2.2 MT/ha higher for no-rye plots.

Open Access

Abstract

Field studies were conducted on Plinthic and Typic Paleudult soils in central Alabama to determine the response of tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill), to furrow, sprinkle, and trickle irrigation with and without in-row chiseling. Irrigation by all methods and in-row chiseling increased plant heights which ranged from 70 to 120 cm at first harvest. Marketable tomato yields were influenced more by irrigation (37% increase) than by chiseling (8% increase). Yields averaged 36.7 metric tons/ha with no irrigation and 50.1 metric tons/ha with irrigation. No difference was found between irrigation methods. Amounts of irrigation water applied per season averaged 34.5 cm for furrow, 37.4 cm for sprinkle, and 16.0 cm for trickle. In-row chiseling increased yields an average of 3.7 metric tons/ha, but was significant in only 1 of 3 years.

Open Access

Abstract

‘Tropic’ and ‘Walter’ tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum, Mill.) were grown in central Alabama on a Lucedale fine sandy loam soil (Rhodic Paleudult) with uniform 0- to 15-cm surface soil pH of about 6.0 and subsoil pH ranging from 4.4 to 6.2. Depth and amount of soil water extraction and plant heights increased as subsoil pH increased. Marketable tomato yields were influenced by subsoil pH, with maximum yields occurring at pH 5.6 to 5.8. Marketable yields ranged from 10,400 to 55,500 kg/ha for ‘Tropic’ and from 14,000 to 39,400 kg/ha for ‘Walter’. Yield of large size fruit of ‘Tropic’ was greater above pH 5.0 than below pH 5.0. Fruit size distribution for ‘Walter’ was not affected by subsoil pH.

Open Access

Abstract

Field studies were conducted to determine the response of snap beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and cucumbers (Cucumis sativus L.) to no, intermediate, and high irrigation with 0, 65, 100, and 135 kg N/ha on beans and 56 and 112 kg N/ha on cucumbers. Intermediate irrigation increased marketable yields, but high irrigation did not. Average snap bean yields for the 3-year period by soil water regimes were 5,800, 7,000, and 6,800 kg/ha, and for cucumbers were 32,200, 35,400, and 33,000 kg/ha for no, intermediate, and high irrigation, respectively. Applied N increased yields, with the 3-year average snap bean yields being 4,600, 6,600, 7,200 and 7,700 kg/ha for 0, 65, 100 and 135 kg/ha rates, respectively, and cucumber yields being 31,900 and 35,100 kg/ha for 56 and 112 kg/ha, respectively. There was a greater response to N fertilizer on the spring crop than on the fall crop.

Open Access

Abstract

Boston fern [Nephrolepis exaltata (L.) Schott ‘Rooseveltii’] was grown with sufficient and insufficient levels of N and K and leaf nutrient concentrations were determined periodically from 4 frond sections: frond tips, 10–12 cm; frond midsections, 10–12 cm; frond bases, 10–12 cm; and whole fronds, 30–40 cm. Both the frond midsection and the whole frond were found to be acceptable for foliar analysis. Frond tips had the lowest nutrient concentrations for most elements. Foliar N was similar for all frond sections sampled. Nitrogen deficiency symptoms occurred after 2 to 4 weeks of minus N conditions. When three N sources were added to plants grown under minus N conditions, N source had a limited influence on N uptake as measured by foliar analysis. One and 2 weeks after N treatment was restored to N-deficient ferns, foliar N had increased 55 and 100%, respectively.

Open Access

Abstract

Nephrolepsis exaltata (L.) Schott cv. Whitmanii supplied with 3 fertilizer rates and varying rates of dolomitic limestone grew more efficiently at lower N rates when 0-3.0 kg/m3 of dolomitic limestone was used. Nonlimed ferns exhibited marginal foliar necrosis damage when fertilized with 300 and 450 ppm N, while limed ferns exhibited similar damage only when fertilized at 450 ppm N. Liming decreased foliar N content, increased medium soluble salt levels, prevented the increase in pH level from high fertilizer rates, and provided a buffer against toxicity, possibly from ammonia.

Open Access

Abstract

Three rootstock—Elberta seedling (Elb), Lovell seedling (Lov), and Vila Fria seedling (VF)—were evaluated on an old peach-orchard site to determine their susceptibility to nematodes and their effect on growth, yield, survival, and foliar nutrient content of ‘Loring’ peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch]. During the first 6 years of the orchard's life, mortality rates of the trees were 18% (Elb), 21% (Lov), and 47% (VF). Rootstock did not affect tree height, spread, trunk circumference, or yield the first 3 crop years. However, Lov produced higher yields the 4th crop year and had a greater cumulative yield for the first 4 crop years than Elb or VF. When tree loss was taken into account, tree yield per hectare did not differ with Lov and Elb but was lower with VF. Rootstock did not affect nutrient level in the foliage. Nematode populations were low in the orchard and were unaffected by rootstock. Tree loss, yield differences, and cropping efficiency of trees on the different rootstock could not be accounted for by foliar nutrient levels, nematode populations, tree vigor, or size.

Open Access

Abstract

Foliar and dormant shoot nutrient content and tree survival of ‘Loring’ and ‘Redhaven’ peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] on 8 seedling rootstocks (Lovell, Halford, Harrow W-208, NA8, Nemagard, Siberian C, NC NRL-4, and NC 152-AI-2) were determined during 2 seasons. Foliar Ca levels of both ‘Loring’ and ‘Redhaven’ peach trees were lower on Siberian C rootstock than on any other rootstock in the study. Dormant stem Ca levels were lower when cultivars were on Siberian C rootstock than when on most other rootstocks. Cultivars on Siberian C had lower foliar K levels than most other scion/rootstock combinations. Some differences in foliar and stem N, P, Mg, and Mn levels were evident; however, these differences generally were small and inconsistent. After 6 years in the orchard, greatest tree loss occurred with ‘Loring’ on Siberian C and ‘Redhaven’ on Siberian C or NA-8. Other rootstocks did not affect tree survival of either cultivar. Tree width was smallest with Siberian C rootstock, but few differences in trunk circumference and tree height were observed.

Open Access