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The diversity of site-specific management opportunities is demonstrated by the list of topics and speakers we have in the colloquium. These techniques will help use to better understand, adapt, and adjust horticultural management to the benefit of producers, researchers, and the consumer. With these technologies we will be able to reduce costs, environmental impacts, and improve production, and quality. Horticulture will use more both remote and manually operated devices that allow more intensive planning and management of our production systems. This colloquium has just scratched the surface of the potential of these techniques in horticulture. We hope that the sampling will whet your appetite for great depth of study of the opportunities that are just around the corner.

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Computer-based authoring tools, e.g. Macromedia Authorware©, allow one to produce interactive applications or computer-based training modules for horticulture teaching and extension. These applications are useful not only as presentation tools, but also as supplementary instruction, whereby a student can interact with an application at his/her own convenience and learning level. “Interactive Lessons for Introductory Horticulture©” is one example of an application used in OSU's HORT 1013: Principles of Horticultural Science course. Students are able to navigate to various topics by selecting chapters and topics within chapters. The information is not just presented, but rather acted upon by the student through movable objects, touch-sensitive areas, text, audio and video clips, etc. Student learning should be enhanced by the variety of stimuli and the ability to review an entire presentation or portion thereof at will.

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Classrooms are radically changing across the nation's campuses. Rooms that were once dominated by bright lights, chalkboards, and overhead projectors are being transformed into multimedia “Master Classrooms,” complete with task lighting, video projectors, visualizers, laserdisk and videotape players, soft boards, and computers. What are these pieces of equipment, how much do they cost, and how can they be implemented into horticultural curriculum? Just as our college students teethed on television programs such as Sesame Street when they were toddlers, they now are continuing to learn through a combination of audio, video, and kinesthetic stimulation in the classroom. Computer hardware and software empowers today's educator with a multimedia development studio on his/her desktop to create simple “slide” presentations or complex, interactive multimedia applications. However, it is not multimedia itself, any more than it was the chalkboard, that makes a powerfully educational presentation; rather it is the educator's creativity, utilization of instructional methods, and delivery. Interactive, multimedia development software allows the educator to address different styles and paces of learning as he or she develops a lesson. Through on-screen hot spots, movable objects, buttons, etc., the educator engages the learner's attention and provides the opportunity for the learner to rehearse a concept as often and repeatedly as necessary to encode the information for later retrieval and application to new concepts. Given the power of this new medium to visually and audibly present information, how does the educator avoid overloading the learner? Although multimedia applications readily engage the learner, it takes careful programming by the educator to maintain and direct the learner's attention to ensure transfer of the information from short- to long-term memory.

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Classrooms are radically changing across United States campuses. Rooms that were once dominated by bright lights, chalkboards, and overhead projectors, are being transformed into multimedia “master classrooms,” complete with task lighting, video projectors, visualizers, laserdisc and videotape players, soft boards, and computers. What are these pieces of equipment, how much do they cost, and how can they be implemented into a horticultural curriculum? Computer hardware and software empowers today's educator with a multimedia development studio on his or her desktop to create simple slide presentations or complex, interactive multimedia applications. However, it is not multimedia itself, any more than it was the chalkboard, that makes a powerful, educational presentation, rather it is the educator's creativity, use of instructional methods, and delivery.

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The Oklahoma Botanical Garden and Arboretum (OBGA) at Oklahoma State University was awarded an “America the Beautiful” grant from the Oklahoma Department of Agriculture and the Oklahoma Urban and Community Forestry Council to develop a plant database and plant identification labels.

Culturally informative plant identification labels are engraved by a computer-controlled Newing-Hall 300 Engraver. Labels include not only scientific, common, and family names, but also cultural icons, depicting light, water, and pH preferences. The cultural icons provide visual cues to students in OSU's plant identification courses, as well as to visitors in OBGA's gardens and conservatories.

Additionally, the labels feature the common name engraved in Braille at the bottom of the label to facilitate education of visually impaired students and visitors. In anticipation of streamlining data collection on a plant's growth, flowering, fruiting, etc., each label also includes a barcode representation of the plant's accession number.

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The Oklahoma Botanical Garden and Arboretum (OBGA) at Oklahoma State University was awarded an “America the Beautiful” grant from the Oklahoma Department of Agriculture and the Oklahoma Urban and Community Forestry Council to develop a plant database and plant identification labels.

The OBGA Plant Information Manager version 1.0 was created to assist students, volunteers, and staff of public gardens with maintenance of data from plant accession, growth, flowering, fruiting, etc. The program is a graphical interface to dBASE IV records, created with Borland's ObjectVision 2.0 for Windows.

Users are prompted for information via “check boxes” ⊗, “radio buttons” ⊙, and selection lists, thereby reducing incorrect entries. The series of forms leads the user through the process of plant accessioning, including information on donor, size, flowering season, fall foliage color, planting site, cultural preferences, etc.

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Salpiglossis sinuata R. et P., a floriferous member of the Solanaceae, was studied for potential as a flowering potted plant when modified by growth retardants. Seedlings of an inbred line P-5 were covered with black cloth for an 8-hour photoperiod to permit vegetative growth to ≈16 -cm-diameter rosettes. Plants were then exposed to an 18-hour photoperiod for the duration of study. Flowering occurred 40 days after the plants were transferred to long days. Neither spray applications of uniconazole at 10, 20, 40, or 100 ppm, nor chlormequat chloride at 750, 1500, or 3000 ppm significantly retarded plant height. Applications of daminozide, ranging in concentration from 1000 to 5000 ppm, alone and in combination with chlormequat chloride, were effective at retarding plant height; however, concomitant restriction of corolla diameter was frequently observed. Chemical names used: 2-chloro- N,N,N -trimethylethanaminium chloride (chlormequat chloride); butanedioic acid mono(2,2-dimethylhydrazide) (daminozide); and (E) -1-(p-chlorophenyl)-4,4-dimethyl-2-(1,2,4-triazol-1-yl) -1-penten-3-01 (uniconazole).

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The effects of fertilizer placement and soil moisture level on soil N movement, uptake, and use by tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) grown with drip irrigation and plastic mulch were evaluated at two locations on two types of sandy soils. Broadcast or band fertilizer placement had no effect on fruit size, fruit number, or total yield. Fruit size was increased at one location, and the incidence of blossom-end rot was decreased by increased frequency of irrigation. Nitrate-N distribution within the bed was not affected by initial N placement. In the soil with a rapid infiltration rate, NO3-N levels in the center of the bed were always low, with highest concentration observed in the areas of the bed most distant from the drip tube. In the soil with the slower infiltration rate, NO3-N concentrations were more uniform throughout the bed, with highest concentrations in the bed center: Increasing soil moisture levels (–20 kPa vs. –30 kPa) resulted in increased leaching and reduced NO3-N concentration throughout the bed. Foliage N concentration was not affected by N placement, but decreased seasonally. Total N uptake by the above-ground portion of the plants was not affected by fertilizer placement or soil moisture level.

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Studies were conducted to determine the effect of N application frequency through drip irrigation on soil NO3-N movement in the bed profile and on yield and N uptake by tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. `Sunny') at two locations. Increasing N application frequency resulted in increased yields at Clayton, N. C., but not at Charleston, S.C. The number of fruit produced was not affected by N treatment at either location, but fruit size increased with increasing N application frequency at Clayton. Foliage N concentration decreased seasonally, but neither foliage N concentration nor total N content of the above-ground portion of the plants was affected by N application frequency. Regardless of N application frequency, NO3-N concentrations within the raised bed decreased with time due to plant uptake and leaching. Nitrogen levels declined most rapidly in the area closest to the drip tube.

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Two formulations of a new methylene urea product on tomato were evaluated. Applications of 150, 200, 250 lb/acre of N in eastern North Carolina and 175 and 250 lb/acre of N in western North Carolina of both liquid and dry formulation of the material were made. The liquid was applied the first 6 weeks of growth and the dry applied at planting. These treatments were compared with 200 lb/acre of N (standard) and 300 lb/acre of N, which were fertigated throughout the season. In eastern North Carolina, all rates of the liquid and high rate of dry formulations produced more yield of larger fruit than the standard. In western North Carolina, all methylene urea sources out-performed the standard. Soil and foliar nitrate was somewhat greater than the standard throughout the season, but, at end of season in the west, only the 250 dry material had more N in the soil. Methylene urea treatments took up more N than the control. All methylene urea except 200 dry produced more dollars per acre than the standard.

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