The influence of shoot age on 14C partitioning in potted avocado (Persea americana var. americana Mill.) trees was determined. The oldest leaf of actively growing shoots and the youngest leaf of previously matured shoots were exposed to 14CO2 18 and 34 days after budbreak (DABB) of new shoots. At these times, treated leaves had a positive net CO2 assimilation rate and, therefore, were considered to be net C exporters. Sixteen days after 14C exposure, separate plant tissues were harvested, dried, weighed, and oxidized. The percentage of 14C in each tissue was determined by liquid scintillation spectrometry. Photoassimilates were translocated acropetally and basipetally from all treated leaves. However, at 18 DABB, developing leaves of actively growing shoots seemed to be the strongest sink for C assimilated by the oldest leaf of these shoots, whereas the roots were the strongest sink for C assimilated by the youngest leaf of the previously matured shoots. By 34 DABB, roots were the strongest sink for C assimilated by leaves of new and previously matured shoots. These data are useful in developing improved management strategies for controlling phytophthora root rot (incited by Phytophthora cinnamomi Rands) in avocados by systemic phosphonate fungicides translocated in the photoassimilate pathway. Thus, phosphonates should be applied after shoots have matured and most of the canopy is in a quiescent state for maximum translocation to the roots.
Anthony W. Whiley and Bruce Schaffer
Maritza Ojeda, Bruce Schaffer and Frederick S. Davies
Root ferric chelate reductase (FCR) activity in Annona glabra L. (pond apple), native to subtropical wetland habitats and Annona muricata L. (soursop), native to non-wetland tropical habitats, was determined under Fe-sufficient and Fe-deficient conditions. Four-month-old seedlings of each species were grown hydroponically in a complete nutrient solution containing 90 μm Fe or no Fe. The degree of tolerance of Fe deficiency was evaluated by measuring root FCR activity, chlorophyll and Fe concentration in recently matured leaves and plant growth. Root FCR activity was higher in soursop than in pond apple in the nutrient solution with Fe. However, there were no differences in root FCR activity between species under Fe-deficient conditions. Root FCR activity in pond apple and soursop was not induced in the absence of Fe. Leaf chlorophyll index and Fe concentration, and dry weights of pond apple were lower when plants were grown without Fe compared to plants grown with Fe. Leaves of pond apple grown without Fe became chlorotic within 3 weeks. Lack of Fe decreased the chlorophyll index and Fe concentration in young leaves less in soursop than in pond apple. In contrast, the Fe level in the nutrient solution had no effect on dry weights of soursop. The rapid development of leaf chlorosis and low FCR activity of pond apple may be due to its native origin in wetland areas where there is sufficient soluble Fe for plant growth and development.
Michele Warmund, Bruce Barritt and Karen Schaffer
`Mark' rootstock is a relatively new dwarfing rootstock that induces precocity in apple trees. While `Mark' has desirable horticultural characteristics, it has been difficult to propagate in some areas of the United States. To determine the optimum budding date at two climatically diverse locations, `Jonagold' buds were chip-budded onto `Mark' rootstock on 20 July, 10 Aug., 31 Aug. and 21 Sept. 1989 at Atlas, Illinois and Wenatchee, Washington. Prior to budbreak, unions were sampled from each budding date and the callus, bud plate and rootstock were measured and photographed. Trees budded and grown in Illinois had more callus growth than those budded in Washington. In Illinois, the callus of trees budded on 20 July averaged 3.2 mm., whereas those budded on 21 Sept. averaged 1.0 mm. Trees grown in Washington had 0.4 mm of callus at both budding dates. Callus growth will be correlated with union compatibility and strength in Nov. 1990.
Christopher Vincent, Diane Rowland and Bruce Schaffer
Primed acclimation (PA) is a regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) strategy designed to improve or maintain yield under subsequent drought stress. A previous study showed photosynthetic increases in papaya in response to a PA treatment. The present study was undertaken to test the duration of the PA effect when papaya plants were challenged with severe drought stress. Potted plants were stressed at 1, 2, and 3 months after conclusion of a PA treatment consisting of 3 weeks at soil water tension (SWT) of −20 kPa. Measurements included leaf gas exchange, root growth, and organ dry mass partitioning. PA did not reduce net CO2 assimilation (A) during the deficit period. At the end of the PA period, total dry matter accumulation per plant and for each organ was unaffected, but proportional dry matter partitioning to roots was favored. After resuming full irrigation, A increased and whole plant water use was more than doubled in PA-treated plants. However, water use and A of PA-treated plants decreased to reconverge with those of control plants by 6 weeks after the PA treatment. Over the course of the study, PA plants maintained lower stem height to stem diameter ratios, and shorter internode lengths. However, these changes did not improve photosynthetic response to any of the water-deficit treatments. We conclude that papaya exhibits some signs of stress memory, but that rapid short-term acclimation responses dominate papaya responses to soil water deficit.
Bruce Schaffer, Anthony W. Whiley and Christopher Searle
Rashid Al-Yahyai*, Bruce Schaffer and Frederick S. Davies
The effect of soil water depletion on plant water potential and leaf gas exchange of carambola (Averrhoa carambola L. cv. Arkin) in Krome very gravelly loam soil was studied in an orchard and in containers in the field and in a greenhouse. The rate of soil water depletion was determined by continuously monitoring soil water content with multi-sensor capacitance probes. Stem water potential and leaf gas exchange of carambola in containers were reduced when the soil water depletion level fell below 50% (where field capacity = 100%). Although there was a decrease in the rate of soil water depletion in the orchard as the soil dried, soil water depletion did not go below an average of 70%. This was presumably due to sufficient rainfall and capillary movement of water in the soil. Therefore, soil water content did not decline sufficiently to affect leaf gas exchange and leaf and stem water potential of orchard trees. A decline in soil water depletion below 40% resulted in a concomitant decline in stem water potential of the container trees in the field and greenhouse to below -1.0 MPa. Stomatal conductance, net CO2 assimilation, and transpiration declined significantly when stem water potential was below -1.0 MPa. The reduction of net CO2 assimilation and transpiration was proportional to the decline in stomatal conductance of container trees in the field and greenhouse. Thus, soil water depletion in Krome very gravelly loam soil must be less than 50% before water potential or leaf gas exchange of carambola is affected. Based on these results, irrigation scheduling should be based on physiological variables such as stem water potential and stomatal conductance or the amount rather than the rate of soil water depletion.
Kirk D. Larson, Bruce Schaffer and Frederick S. Davies
One-year-old potted `Peach' mango (Mangifera indica L.) trees were flooded at soil temperatures of 15, 22.5 or 30°C. Hypertrophied lenticels were observed after 5-6 days at 30°C and 6-8 days at 22.5°C, but were not observed after 30 days at 15°C. Cells of hypertrophied lenticels were more spherical and randomly arranged than those of nonhypertrophied lenticels, resulting in increased intercellular airspace. Lenticel hypertrophy also occurred on sterns of trees which were kept moist from intermittant misting, and on excised and intact stem sections. Therefore, formation of hypertrophied lenticels in mango occurs independently of root anaerobiosis and is dependent on floodwater temperature.
Kirk D. Larson, Bruce Schaffer. and Frederick S. Davies
The influence of floodwater dissolved O2 content on stem lenticel hypertrophy and endogenous ethylene evolution from mango trees, and the influence of exogenous ethylene on mango stem lenticel hypertrophy was examined. In general, floodwater O2 contents of 1-7 ppm resulted in lenticel hypertrophy within about 6 days of flooding, whereas floodwater O2 contents of 15 ppm delayed hypertrophy until about day 9. After 14 days of flooding, there were more than twice the number of hypertrophied lenticels per tree with floodwater O2 contents of 1-7 ppm than with O2 contents of 15 ppm. Ethylene evolution from aerobic stem tissue increased 4- to 8-fold in trees exposed to floodwater with 1-2 ppm O2, increased 2-fold for trees exposed to 6-7 ppm O2, but remained constant with 15 ppm floodwater dissolved O2 content. During a 10-day flooding period, trees in floodwater with 15 ppm dissolved O2 content, and given exogenous ethylene, developed extensive stem lenticel hypertrophy, whereas no hypertrophy developed on stems of trees receiving no exogenous ethylene and maintained in floodwater with 15 ppm O2. These data suggest that ethylene plays a role in promoting stem lenticel hypertrophy in flooded mango trees.
Anthony W. Whiley, Christopher Searle, Bruce Schaffer and B. Nigel Wolstenholme
Leaf gas exchange of avocado (Persea americana Mill.) and mango (Mangifera indica L.) trees in containers and in an orchard (field-grown trees) was measured over a range of photosynthetic photon fluxes (PPF) and ambient CO2 concentrations (Ca). Net CO2 assimilation (A) and intercellular partial pressure of CO2 (Ci) were determined for all trees in early autumn (noncold-stressed leaves) when minimum daily temperatures were ≥14 °C, and for field-grown trees in winter (cold-stressed leaves) when minimum daily temperatures were ≤10 °C. Cold-stressed trees of both species had lower maximum CO2 assimilation rates (Amax), light saturation points (QA), CO2 saturation points (CaSAT) and quantum yields than leaves of noncold-stressed, field-grown trees. The ratio of variable to maximum fluorescence (Fv/Fm) was ≈50% lower for leaves of cold-stressed, field-grown trees than for leaves of nonstressed, field-grown trees, indicating chill-induced photoinhibition of leaves had occurred in winter. The data indicate that chill-induced photoinhibition of A and/or sink limitations caused by root restriction in container-grown trees can limit carbon assimilation in avocado and mango trees.
Bruce Schaffer, Frederick S. Davies and Jonathan H. Crane
The effects of flooding calcareous soil on physiology and growth have been studied for several subtropical and tropical fruit crops including avocado (Persea americana Mill.), mango (Mangifera indica L.), carambola (Averrhoa carambola L.), and several Annona species. In calcareous soils that have a high pH, short-term flooding can actually be beneficial to subtropical and tropical fruit crops by increasing the solubility of particle-bound nutrient elements such as Fe, Mn and Mg due to flooding-induced decreases in soil pH. Additionally, flooding reduces the redox potential in the soil, resulting in Fe being reduced from Fe3+ to Fe2+, which is the cation metabolized by plants. As with other woody perennial crops, one of the early physiological responses of subtropical and tropical fruit trees to flooding is a decrease in stomatal conductance and net CO2 assimilation. If the flooding period is prolonged, lack of O2 (anoxia) in the soil results in a reduction of root and shoot growth, wilting, decreased nutrient uptake and eventual death. The flooding duration required to cause tree mortality varies among species, among cultivars within species, and with environmental conditions, particularly temperature. Several tropical and subtropical fruit crops have anatomical or morphological adaptations to tolerate prolonged flooding, such as development of hypertrophied stem lenticels, adventitious rooting or formation of porous aerenchyma tissue. For grafted trees, flooding-tolerance is conferred by the rootstock and not the scion. Therefore there is a possibility to increase flood tolerance of subtropical and tropical fruit crops by identifying or developing flood-tolerant rootstocks.