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  • Author or Editor: Bruce J. Parliman x
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Abstract

Effective germplasm exchange can be equated with acquisition of desired or appropriate germplasm, its subsequent survival and distribution, and then its exploitation at one or more levels, including breeding programs. Few problems occur when clonally propagated plant materials are moved locally. However, exchange problems continually reoccur when the same type of plant germplasm is shipped over long distances, such as between countries. The purposes of this paper are to: a) identify key components of the international plant germplasm exchange process that are time-consuming and present the most serious threats to the plant germ plasm itself; and b) propose procedures that will minimize or eliminate these problem areas and reduce the length of time required for successful exchange of germplasm to take place. Exchange components for clonally and sexually propagated foreign and domestic plant germplasm, including most temperate fruit crops, are exploration, collection, identification, data recording and manipulation, labeling, shipping, propagation, regulation resulting from quarantine policy development and interpretation, quarantine pathogen testing and therapy, repository/genebank maintenance and preservation, breeding, testing/evaluation, and distribution.

Open Access

Abstract

The development and use of bar codes for automatic identification and systematic data collection is one of the most significant technological changes in American business and industry today. Most people become familiar with bar codes at the grocery store. The bar code symbol (Fig. 1) is that portion of the merchandise label with black bars and white spaces that is scanned by machines at the check-out counter. Bar codes are achieving widespread popularity because they can be incorporated into the primary-source marking of products from production to consumption (23). Bar codes are having tremendous impact on manufacturing, warehousing, and distribution activities. Bar code symbols are used for automatic identification of items as varied as hospital supplies, library books, and marathon runners; and are used to keep track of the manufacture of items as diverse as automobiles, hot steel ingots, and integrated circuits.

Open Access

Abstract

A single rhizome explant of the Venus fly-trap has the potential to produce 14 or more rooted plantlets in 40 to 60 days when cultured on a medium containing half strength Murashige and Skoog salts, organic components, naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) at 1.9 mg/liter and 6-benzylamino purine (BA) at 0.2 mg/liter. Cultures were grown in 16 hour cycles of Cool White fluorescent light at 23° to 26°C. Explants derived from either lateral buds or adventitious buds from leaf cuttings have equal potential for rapid multiplication. This same medium produced optimum plantlet size and quality. Supplementing the basal medium with 0.3 or 1.0 mg/liter of GA3 decreased the number of explants and increased the size of plantlets prior to acclimatization. Media containing higher and lower salt concentrations and higher and lower IAA, NAA, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), BA, or 6(γ,γ, dimethylallylamino)-purine (2ip), produced fewer plantlets while increasing deleterious effects. The rapid plantlet multiplication procedure described will increase commercial availability of the plants while decreasing collection pressures on wild germplasm pools.

Open Access

Abstract

Excised whole leaves of in vitro cultured Venus fly-trap plants produced up to 15 adventitious bud- (AB) and lateral bud-derived (LB) plantlets in 60 to 90 days, when cultured on a modified Murashige and Skoog salt medium supplemented with naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) at 1.9 mg/liter and 6(-γ,γ-dimethylallylamino)-purine (2iP) at 0.2 mg/liter and grown under a 16 hr photoperiod at 22°C. Leaves dipped for 10 seconds to 24 hr in various concentrations of 6-benzylamino purine (BA), 2iP, NAA and indolibutyric acid (IBA) improved the production of plantlets over undipped leaves. A 24 hr 2iP dip at 2.1 mg/liter produced the largest average number of adventitious and lateral bud-dervied plantlets. Lateral bud-derived plantlets are proposed to have arisen from nodes within the rhizomes of previously derived plantlets. Morphologically, the resulting chain-like growth habit of lateral bud-derived plantlets is very unusual and provides an increased number of plantlets for subcultures.

Open Access