In unstressed apple seedlings (Malus domestics Borkh.), concentrations of free abscisic acid (ABA) decreased in order from apical stem sections, immature expanding leaves, mature stem sections, and mature leaves. PEG-induced water stress stimulated a 2- to 10-fold increase in free ABA concentrations 1 day after treatment, depending on the amount of stress and the tissue. By the 3rd day of stress, free ABA concentrations were nearly the same as the unstressed treatment and remained low for the remainder of the 21-day stress period. Bound ABA concentrations were an order of magnitude lower than free ABA and were not influenced dramatically by water stress. Shoot growth rate, leaf expansion rate, and leaf emergence rate were reduced by water stress in relation to the severity of the stress; this reduction was associated with the initial increase in ABA. However, there was no increase in shoot or leaf growth rates associated with the decline in ABA concentrations by day 3 as growth rates remained depressed on water-stressed plants throughout the 21-day stress period. Water stress reduced evapotranspiration rate and midshoot leaf water potential (ψW)after 1 day, but leaf osmotic potential (ψS) adjusted more slowly, resulting in a loss of leaf turgor. The reduction in leaf turgor pressure (ψP) was highly correlated with decreased shoot growth rate and increased ABA concentrations on day 1 after treatment. By the 3rd day of water stress, ψP bad recovered even in the most severe treatment, and the recovery of turgor was associated with the drop in ABA concentrations. However, the increase in midshoot ψP and the decline in ABA were not associated with any increase in shoot growth rate. The continued inhibition of shoot growth was probably not related to ABA or turgor pressure of mature leaves but may have been related to turgor pressure in the growing tip.
Terence L. Robinson and Bruce H. Barritt
Bruce H. Barritt and Bonnie J. Schonberg
Vegetative (nonflowering) spur characteristics of `Granny Smith', `Lawspur Rome', and `Redchief Delicious' apples (Malus domestics Borkh.) at two canopy positions (1 and 2 m heights) were examined on eight dates throughout a growing season. `Granny Smith' had a greater leaf number/spur (LNO/SP) at each date than `Rome' and `Delicious'. Area/leaf (LA) and dry weight/leaf (LDW) for `Delicious' were substantially less than for `Granny Smith' and `Rome'. Area/leaf increased rapidly after full bloom (FB) until FB + 21 days for `Delicious', FB + 35 for `Granny Smith', and FB + 56 for `Rome', after which no further changes occurred. For each cultivar, leaf area/spur (LAMP) and leaf dry weight/spur (LDW/SP) increased rapidly from FB until FB + 35 days and then more gradually until FB + 104 days. From FB + 21 onward, `Granny Smith' had greater LA/SP and LDW/SP than `Rome', which, in turn, was greater than for `Delicious'. At harvest (FB + 160), LA/SP was 2.5-fold greater for `Granny Smith' and 1.7-fold greater for `Rome' than for `Delicious'. Cultivar differences for leaf dry weight/leaf area (LDW/LA) were small and canopy position differences were large. LDW/LA declined from 7 days before FB to FB + 7, then gradually increased to the end of the season. Dry weight of the vegetative spur buds (with leaves removed) was lower for `Delicious' than for `Rome' or `Granny Smith'. Total spur dry weight (bud + leaves) was, from FB + 21 onward, greatest for `Granny Smith', intermediate for `Rome', and lowest for `Delicious'.
Kate M. Evans, Bruce H. Barritt, Bonnie S. Konishi, Lisa J. Brutcher, and Carolyn F. Ross
Michele R. Warmund, Bruce H. Barritt, John M. Brown, Karen L. Schaffer, and Byoung R. Jeong
`Jonagold'/Mark apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) trees that were chip-budded in Washington and Illinois on 31 Aug. or 21 Sept. 1989 were sampled in Apr. 1990 to determine if magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) could be used to nondestructively examine vascular continuity or discontinuity between the rootstock and scion. Images could be placed into three categories based on signal intensity: 1) the rootstock, bud shield, and the bud or new scion growth had a high signal intensity; 2) the rootstock and the bud shield had a high signal intensity, but the scion had a low signal intensity; and 3) the rootstock had a high signal intensity, but the bud shield and scion had a low signal intensity. High signal intensity was associated with bound water in live tissue and the establishment of vascular continuity between the rootstock and scion. Azosulfamide staining and destructive sectioning confirmed that vascular continuity was established when the rootstock, bud shield, and scion had a high signal intensity in images, whereas budding failure occurred when the bud shield and/or the scion had a low signal intensity. Additional trees that had wilted or weak scion growth were collected from Illinois in June 1990. Parenchyma tissue was found in the scion adjacent to the bud shield that interrupted the vascular tissue. Poor scion growth on trees from the 21 Sept. budding in Washington may be attributed to insufficient growth of rootstock and/or scion tissues at the union in the fall.