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  • Author or Editor: Bruce H. Barritt x
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Abstract

First-year root development on the M.7A rootstock shank was evaluated with four nonspur and seven spur-type strains of ‘Delicious’ apple (Malus domestica borkh.) The rootstock shank was the portion of the rootstock that was above the soil line in the nursery and was buried at the time of planting in the orchard. First-year total shoot length and trunk diameter increase of the scion were generally greater for nonspur than for spur-type strains. Dry weight of new roots per centimeter of rootstock shank length was correlated with shoot length and with trunk diameter increase (r = 0.53 *** and r = 0.68 ***, respectively). Although the more vigorous nonspur strains generally had more rooting on the rootstock shank than spur-type strains, there appear to be other factors, including the nursery environment, that influence shank rooting.

Open Access

Abstract

Red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) fruit firmness, measured as compression force with a Hunter Series L portable pressure gauge, was determined from 15 parent clones and for 813 seedlings derived from 44 crosses. Heritability estimate for fruit firmness, based on parent/offspring regression, was .90 ± .13. Analysis of variance of progeny data showed that general combining ability variance (additive) was significant and much larger than specific combining ability variance. Of the parent clones, ‘Glen Isla’, ‘Glen Prosen’, SHRI6820/41, and SHRI6820/64 had the firmest fruit and, on the basis of progeny analysis, had the highest general combining ability parent values. Low parental values were obtained for ‘Sumner’, ‘Mailing Leo’, ‘Mailing Admiral’, ‘Taylor’, ‘Haida’, and ‘Meeker’.

Open Access

Abstract

An orchard system is the integration of all the horticultural factors involved in establishing and maintaining a planting of fruit trees. These factors include tree density and arrangement, cultivar, root-stock and interstock, tree size and form, pruning and training techniques needed to maintain the desired configuration, mechanical training and harvesting, and support systems. An orchard system is a blueprint for the orchardist to follow throughout the life of a planting.

Open Access

Abstract

Pre- and postharvest fruit rot, caused by Botrytis cinerea Pers. ex. Fr., were determined during 2 seasons for 48 strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch.) cultivars and selections. All had as much or more preharvest rot than ‘Totem’ which was used as the resistant standard. Many, including ‘Belrubi’, ‘Hood’, ‘Linn’, ‘Olympus’, ‘Rainier’ and ‘Sivetta’ had a significantly higher incidence of preharvest rot than ‘Totem’. ‘Totem’, ‘Olympus’, ‘Shuksan’ and ‘Rainier’ were very susceptible to postharvest fruit rot, ‘Hood’ and ‘Linn’ showed intermediate susceptibility and ‘Tago’ and several selections showed some resistance. Pre- and postharvest rot were correlated on several dates but correlation coefficients were all less than 0.585. Fruit firmness was negatively associated with both pre- and postharvest incidence of fruit rot although correlation coefficients were all less than 0.645. Many selections showing postharvest rot resistance were derived from the very firm fruited clones, NY 844 and ‘Linn’. This study demonstrates that it is possible to select firm-fruited clones which have resistance to both preharvest and postharvest Botrytis fruit rot. Clones with these three desirable traits were WSU 1522, 1641, 1647, 1675, 1696 and 1698.

Open Access

Abstract

Gibberellic acid (GA) sprays applied at 50 ppm, 10 to 30 days after planting, significantly increased runner plant production over controls (number of runner series and number of runner plants per runner series) in both greenhouse and field studies with the ‘Olympus’ strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch.), a single cropping short day cultivar. GA did not influence runner plant production with ‘Northwest’, ‘Hood’, ‘Rainier’ or ‘WSU 1019’. Blossom removal significantly increased runner plant numbers with ‘Rainier’, ‘Olympus’ and ‘Hood’, but not with ‘Northwest’. Few runners were produced at late planting dates (May 18 and June 1) in an ‘Olympus’ field trial, and GA sprays 21 days after planting did not influence runner production at these late planting dates.

Open Access

Abstract

Subjective capping ease ratings were used to evaluate 27 strawberry clones over a 4-year period. ‘Puget Beauty’, ‘Olympus’, ‘Totem’ and ‘Hood’ were the easiest cultivars to cap while ‘Shuksan’, ‘Rainier’ and ‘Holiday’ were the most difficult. General combining ability (GCA), specific combining ability (SCA) and GCA parent values were estimated from seedlings in 79 families. GCA parent values were positively correlated with parent phenotypic assessment (r = .828). GCA variance was 4 times larger than SCA. Heritability based on parentoffspring regression of 89 families was .84.

Open Access

Abstract

The suitability of 8 strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch.) cultivars and selections for mechanical harvesting was evaluated by manual harvest at specified intervals during 2 ripening seasons. Single harvests 5, 8, 12 or 15 days after the date the majority of primary fruits were ripe significantly reduced marketable yields below the total yield of the conventional (several harvests throughout the ripening period) type. Highest single yields occurred on days 5 and 8. ‘WSU 1142’ produced the highest marketable yields in single harvests. These equalled 75% for day 8 in 1971 and 69% for day 5 in 1972 of the conventional harvest marketable yield. ‘Shuksan’ and ‘Hood’ also produced high single harvest yields while ‘Northwest’, ‘WSU 1165’ and ‘Rainier’ had low yields. The incidence of Botrytis fruit rot increased and mean fruit size decreased as single harvest was delayed.

Open Access

Vegetative (nonflowering) spur characteristics of `Granny Smith', `Lawspur Rome', and `Redchief Delicious' apples (Malus domestics Borkh.) at two canopy positions (1 and 2 m heights) were examined on eight dates throughout a growing season. `Granny Smith' had a greater leaf number/spur (LNO/SP) at each date than `Rome' and `Delicious'. Area/leaf (LA) and dry weight/leaf (LDW) for `Delicious' were substantially less than for `Granny Smith' and `Rome'. Area/leaf increased rapidly after full bloom (FB) until FB + 21 days for `Delicious', FB + 35 for `Granny Smith', and FB + 56 for `Rome', after which no further changes occurred. For each cultivar, leaf area/spur (LAMP) and leaf dry weight/spur (LDW/SP) increased rapidly from FB until FB + 35 days and then more gradually until FB + 104 days. From FB + 21 onward, `Granny Smith' had greater LA/SP and LDW/SP than `Rome', which, in turn, was greater than for `Delicious'. At harvest (FB + 160), LA/SP was 2.5-fold greater for `Granny Smith' and 1.7-fold greater for `Rome' than for `Delicious'. Cultivar differences for leaf dry weight/leaf area (LDW/LA) were small and canopy position differences were large. LDW/LA declined from 7 days before FB to FB + 7, then gradually increased to the end of the season. Dry weight of the vegetative spur buds (with leaves removed) was lower for `Delicious' than for `Rome' or `Granny Smith'. Total spur dry weight (bud + leaves) was, from FB + 21 onward, greatest for `Granny Smith', intermediate for `Rome', and lowest for `Delicious'.

Free access

Abstract

Spur-type ‘Delicious’ apple nursery trees do not naturally branch in the nursery. In several experiments during 2 years, combinations of immature leaf removal (LR), BA, and gibberellins 4 + 7 (GA4+7) at 750 and 1000 mg·liter–1 induced lateral shoot formation of Campbell and Mercier strains of ‘Redchief Delicious’ trees in a commercial nursery. Split applications of BA and GA4+7 at 1000 mg·liter–1 induced more and longer branches than simultaneous applications. GA3 did not substitute for GA4+7 in this response. Removing young shoot tip leaves increased branching only when very young leaves were removed during a period of 2 weeks. Chemical names used: N-(phenylmethyl)-1H-purine-6-amine (BA), gibberellin (GA).

Open Access

Abstract

‘Tillikum’ is a day-neutral (everbearing) strawberry cultivar jointly released by Wash. State Univ., Univ. of Idaho, Ore. State Univ., and the USDA. ‘Tillikum’ means “friend” in the language of the Chinook Indians. Its virus tolerance and high yields of quality fruit make it a promising candidate for home garden use in the Pacific Northwest.

Open Access