Own-rooted, glasshouse-grown `Chardonnay' vines (Vitis vinifera L.) were planted in a sand medium to which was added one of five levels of granular Gro-Mate (GM), a commercial humate (0, 8, 16, 32, 64 g/pot; 0 to 35 g a.i./pot). Two other treatments consisted of weekly (1× W) or twice-weekly (2× W) applications of liquid GM, whose cumulative addition over the 28 weeks of the experiment totaled 6.7 and 13.4 g a.i., respectively. Shoot length responded to increasing level of GM in a predominantly cubic fashion, with 32 g/pot resulting in the longest shoots. Fresh and dry weights of leaves, shoots, and roots, as well as leaf count and area, exhibited increasing linear or quadratic trends in response to increased level of granular GM. GM increased soil organic matter, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Cu, Na, and S and also increased petiole Fe and lamina P, K, and Fe. Liquid treatment resulted in lower soil pH, organic matter, bulk density, and Fe and higher soil conductivity, NO3, P, K, Mg, Cu, Zn, Na, and S than the granular treatments, as well as higher petiole and lamina N and K, lower petiole and lamina P, and lower petiole Zn. Compared to the 1× W treatment, the 2× W produced lower soil bulk density and higher P, lower lamina K, Mn, and Fe; lower petiole Mn; and higher petiole Cu. Plant tissues contained extremely high levels of Mn irrespective of treatment, whereas liquid treatments resulted in high soil NO3 levels. Although liquid GM cannot be recommended for young grapevines under an application regime such as described here, preplant applications of granular GM may have potential for improving growth of young vines in coarse-textured soils. High granular or excessive liquid applications may result in leaf necrosis and retarded growth.
Andrew G. Reynolds, Douglas A. Wardle, Brian Drought, and Robert Cantwell
William D. Wolk, O.L. Lau, G.H. Neilsen, and Brian G. Drought
A study was undertaken to identify key factors associated with storage disorders in three commercially important apple cultivars in British Columbia and to determine how early in the season associations could be measured. Fruit mass, density, and concentrations of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, and dry matter were determined for `McIntosh', `Spartan', and `Golden Delicious' apples (Malus ×domestica Borkh) from ≈30 commercial orchards 9, 6, 3, and 0 weeks before harvest. Storage samples were collected at commercial harvest and evaluated for the development of internal breakdown (`McIntosh' and `Spartan') or bitter pit (`Golden Delicious') after 4 and 6 months of 0 °C air storage. Mass and [Ca] and the mass/[Ca] and [K]/[Ca] ratios were the factors most often significantly correlated with storage disorders within each year for all three cultivars. Correlations were as frequently significant 6 and 3 weeks before harvest as they were at harvest. Mass of `McIntosh' and `Spartan' was the only variable consistently related with breakdown in all 3 years of the study. There were no variables with a consistent relationship to bitter pit in `Golden Delicious'. Fruit [Ca] was associated with the relative levels of disorders within years but could not be associated with specific levels of disorders across all years.