A series of experiments investigated the effects of increasing phosphate–phosphorus (P) concentrations on the growth and development of four horticultural species. In experiment 1, petunia [Petunia atkinsiana (Sweet) D. Don ex W.H. Baxter] plants were grown using eight P concentrations, and we found that the upper bound for plant growth was at 8.72–9.08 mg·L−1 P, whereas concentrations ≤2.5 mg·L−1 P caused P deficiency symptoms. Experiment 2 investigated P growth response in two cultivars each of New Guinea impatiens (Impatiens hawkeri W. Bull) and vinca [Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don]. Growth for these plants was maximized with 6.43–12.42 mg·L−1 P. In experiment 3, ornamental peppers (Capsicum annuum L. ‘Tango Red’) were given an initial concentration of P for 6 weeks and then switched to 0 mg·L−1 P to observe whether plants could be supplied with sufficient levels of P, and finished without P to keep them compact. Plants switched to restricted P began developing P deficiency symptoms within 3 weeks; however, restricting P successfully limited plant growth. These experiments indicated that current P fertilization regimens exceed the P requirements of these bedding plants, and depending on species, concentrations of 5–15 mg·L−1 P maximize growth.
Processed pine (Pinus sp.) wood has been investigated as a component in horticultural substrates (greenhouse and nursery) for many years. Specifically, pine wood chips (PWC) have been uniquely engineered/processed into a nonfiberous blockular particle size, suitable for use as a substrate aggregate. The purpose of this research was to determine if paclobutrazol drench efficacy is affected by PWC used as a substitute for perlite in a peat-based substrate. Paclobutrazol drench applications of 0, 1, 2, and 4 mg/pot were applied to ‘Pacino Gold’ sunflower (Helianthus annuus); 0.0, 0.25, 0.50, and 1.0 mg/pot to ‘Anemone Safari Yellow’ marigold (Tagetes patula); and 0.0, 0.125, 0.25, and 0.50 mg/pot to ‘Variegata’ plectranthus (Plectranthus ciliates) grown in sphagnum peat-based substrates containing 10%, 20%, or 30% (by volume) perlite or PWC. Efficacy of paclobutrazol drenches for controlling growth of all three species was unaffected by substrate composition. We concluded that substituting PWC for perlite as an aggregate in peat-based substrates should not reduce paclobutrazol drench efficacy, variability in PWC products indicates that efficacy should be tested before large-scale use. The variability results from wood components not being engineered and processed the same across manufacturers, meaning that they are often incapable of improving/influencing the physical and chemical behavior of a substrate similarly.
Processed pine wood (Pinus sp.) has been investigated as a component in greenhouse and nursery substrates for many years. Specifically, pine wood chips (PWC) have been uniquely engineered/processed into a nonfiberous blockular particle size, suitable for use as a substrate aggregate. In container substrates, nitrogen (N) tie-up during crop production is of concern when substrates contain components with high carbon (C):N ratios, like that of PWC that are made from fresh pine wood. The objective of this research was to compare the N requirements of plants grown in sphagnum peat–based substrates amended with perlite or PWC. Fertility concentrations of 100, 200, or 300 mg·L−1 N were applied to ‘Profusion Orange’ zinnia (Zinnia ×hybrida) and ‘Moonsong Deep Orange’ marigold (Tagetes erecta) grown in sphagnum peat–based substrates containing 10%, 20%, or 30% (by volume) perlite or PWC. Zinnia plant substrate solution electrical conductivity (EC) was not influenced by percentage of perlite or PWC. Perlite-amended substrates fertilized with 200 mg·L−1 N for growing zinnia, maintained a constant EC within optimal levels of 1.0 to 2.6 mS·cm−1 from 14 to 42 days after planting (DAP), and then EC increased at 49 DAP. In substrates fertilized with 100 and 300 mg·L−1 N, EC levels steadily declined and then increased, respectively. Zinnia plants grown in PWC-amended substrates fertilized with 200 mg·L−1 N maintained a constant EC within the optimal range from 14 to 49 DAP. Marigold substrate solution EC was only influenced by N concentration and followed a similar response to zinnia substrate solution EC. Zinnia and marigold substrate solution pH was influenced by N concentration and generally decreased with increasing N concentration. Plant growth and shoot dry weight were similar when fertilized with 100 and 200 mg·L−1 N. According to this study, plants grown in PWC-amended substrates fertilized with 100 to 200 mg·L−1 N can maintain adequate substrate solution pH and EC levels and sustain plant growth with no additional N supplements. Pine wood chips are engineered and processed to specific sizes and shapes to be functional as aggregates in a container substrate. Not all wood components are designed or capable of improving/influencing the physical and chemical behavior of a substrate the same. On the basis of the variability of many wood components being developed and researched, it is suggested that any and all substrate wood components not be considered the same and be tested/trialed before large-scale use.
Processed loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) wood has been investigated as a component in greenhouse and nursery substrates for many years. Specifically, pine wood chips (PWCs) have been uniquely engineered/processed into a nonfibrous blockular particle size suitable for use as a substrate aggregate. The objective of this research was to compare the dolomitic limestone requirements of plants grown in peat-based substrates amended with perlite or PWC. In a growth trial with ‘Mildred Yellow’ chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum ×morifolium), peat-based substrates were amended to contain 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, or 50% (by volume) perlite or PWC for a total of 11 substrates. Substrates were amended with dolomitic limestone at rates of 0, 3, 6, 9, or 12 lb/yard3, for a total of 55 substrate treatments. Results indicate that pH of substrates amended with ≥30% perlite or PWC need to be adjusted to similar rates of 9 to 12 lb/yard3 dolomitic limestone to produce similar-quality chrysanthemum plants. In a repeated study, ‘Moonsong Deep Orange’ african marigold (Tagetes erecta) plants were grown in the same substrates previously formulated (with the exclusion of the 50% ratio) and amended with dolomitic limestone at rates of 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, or 15 lb/yard3, for a total of 54 substrate treatments. Results indicate a similar dolomitic limestone rate of 15 lb/yard3 is required to adjust substrate pH of 100% peatmoss and peat-based substrates amended with 10% to 40% perlite or PWC aggregates to the recommended pH range for african marigold and to produce visually similar plants. The specific particle shape and surface characteristics of the engineered PWC may not be similar to other wood products (fiber) currently commercialized in the greenhouse industry, therefore the lime requirements and resulting substrate pH may not be similar for those materials.
Container production of plants use substrates that are formulated to have adequate physical properties to sustain optimal plant growth; however, these properties can change over time as a result of substrate settling and root growth of the growing plant in the container. An apparatus (rhizometer) was developed that measures the changes caused by plant roots on physical properties of substrates during crop production in containers. The design of the rhizometer included a clear core, which allowed for observing and measuring a range of root system characteristics in situ, including total root length visible along the rhizometer. Physical properties of planted and fallow rhizometers were measured, and the effect of four species on substrate physical properties was determined. There was a general decrease in substrate total porosity and air space (AS) over time with both fallow and planted rhizometers as a result of both settling of the substrate and root growth into the substrate. Container capacity did not change over time with or without roots. Plants with large root systems such as Begonia ×hybrida acut. decreased AS over time, whereas plants of Rudbeckia hirta L. with a smaller root system did not have the same effect. Measured total root length was highly correlated to the total dry root mass of Tagetes erecta L. and Zinnia marylandica D.M. Spooner, Stimart & T. Boyle plants. This may allow tracing and measuring root lengths to be another (alternative) method to measure root systems. Planted rhizometers also allowed easy access for viewing the root system non-destructively, providing the ability to observe and measure root growth.
The objective of this study was to compare substrate solution nitrogen (N) availability, N immobilization, and nutrient leaching in a pine tree substrate (PTS), peat-lite (PL), and aged pine bark (PB) over time under greenhouse conditions. Pine tree substrate was produced from loblolly pine logs (Pinus taeda L.) that were chipped and hammer-milled to a desired particle size. Substrates used in this study were PTS ground through a 2.38-mm hammer mill screen, PL, and aged PB. A short-term (28-d) N immobilization study was conducted on substrates fertilized with 150 or 300 mg·L−1 NO3-N. Substrates were incubated for 4 days after fertilizing and NO3-N levels were determined initially and at the end of the incubation. A second medium-term study (10-week) was also conducted to evaluate the amount of N immobilized in each substrate when fertilized with 100, 200, 300, or 400 mg·L−1 N. In addition to determining the amounts of N immobilized, substrate carbon dioxide (CO2) efflux (μmol CO2/m−2·s−1) was also measured as an assessment of microbial activity, which can be an indication of N immobilization. A leaching study on all three substrates was also conducted to determine the amount of nitrate nitrogen (NO3-N), phosphorus, and potassium leached over 14 weeks under greenhouse conditions. Nitrogen immobilization was highest in PTS followed by PB and PL in both the short- and medium-term studies. Nitrogen immobilization increased as fertilizer rate increased from 100 mg·L−1 N to 200 mg·L−1 N in PL and from 100 mg·L−1 N to 300 mg·L−1 N for PB and PTS followed by a reduction or no further increase in immobilization when fertilizer rates increased beyond these levels. Nitrogen immobilization was generally highest in all substrates 2 weeks after potting, after which immobilization tended to decrease over the course of several weeks with less of a decrease for PTS compared with PL and PB. Substrate CO2 efflux levels were highest in PTS followed by PB and PL at each measurement in both the short- and medium-term studies. Patterns of substrate CO2 efflux levels (estimate of microbial populations/activity) at both fertilizer rates and over time were positively correlated to N immobilization occurrence during the studies. Nitrate leaching over 14 weeks was lower in PTS than in PB or PL through 14 weeks. This work provides evidence of increased microbial activity and N immobilization in PTS compared with PB and PL. Increased N immobilization in PTS explains the lower nutrient (primarily N) levels observed in PTS during crop production and justifies the additional fertilizer required for comparable plant growth to PL and PB. This work also provides evidence of less NO3-N leaching in PTS compared with PL or PB during greenhouse crop production despite the higher fertilizer rates required for optimal plant growth in PTS.
The objective of this study was to evaluate a pine tree substrate (PTS) for decomposition, changes in physical and chemical properties, and substrate carbon dioxide (CO2) efflux (microbial activity) during a long-term production cycle under outdoor nursery conditions. Substrates used in this study were PTS constructed using a 4.76-mm hammer mill screen and aged pine bark (PB). Plastic nursery containers were filled with each substrate and amended with either 4.2 or 8.4 kg·m−3 Osmocote Plus fertilizer and planted with Cotoneaster horizontalis or left fallow. Substrate solution chemical properties and nutrient concentrations were determined each month during the summers of 2006 and 2007 in addition to measuring substrate CO2 efflux (μmol CO2/m−2·s−1) as an assessment of microbial activity. Substrate breakdown (decomposition) was determined with particle size analysis and physical property determination on substrates at the conclusion of the study (70 weeks). Substrate solution pH was higher in PTS than in PB at both fertilizer rates in 2006, but pH levels decreased over time and were lower in PTS at both fertilizer rates in 2007. Substrate solution electrical conductivity levels, nitrate, phosphorus, and potassium concentrations were all generally higher in PB than in PTS at both fertilizer rates through both years. Pine tree substrate decomposition was higher when plants were present in the containers [evident by an increase in fine substrate particles (less than 0.5 mm) after 70 weeks], but breakdown was equal at both fertilizer rates. Shrinkage of PTS in the presence of plants was equal to the shrinkage observed in PB with plants, but shrinkage was higher in fallow PTS containers than PTS with plants. Substrate air apace (AS) was highest in PTS and container capacity (CC) was equal in PB and PTS at potting. Substrate AS decreased and CC increased in both substrates after 70 weeks but remained in acceptable ranges for container substrates. Substrate CO2 efflux rates were higher in PTS compared with PB at both fertilizer rates indicating higher microbial activity, thereby increasing the potential for nutrient immobilization and substrate breakdown. This work provides evidence that PTS decomposition is unaffected by fertilizer rate and that substrate shrinkage in containers with plants is similar to PB after two growing seasons (70 weeks), which addresses two major concerns about the use and performance of PTS for long-term nursery crop production. This work also shows that the higher microbial activity in PTS increases the potential of microbial nutrient immobilization, which is likely the reason for the lower substrate nutrient levels reported for PTS compared with PB over 70 weeks.
‘Prestige’ poinsettias (Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd. Ex Klotzsch) were grown at different fertilizer rates in three pine tree substrates (PTS) made from loblolly pine trees (Pinus taeda L.) and a peat-based control. Pine tree substrates were produced from pine trees that were chipped and hammer-milled to a desired particle size. Substrates used in this study included peat-lite (PL), PTS produced with a 2.38-mm screen (PTS1), PTS produced with a 4.76-mm screen (PTS2), and PTS produced with a 4.76-mm screen and amended with 25% peatmoss (v/v) (PTS3). Initial and final substrate physical properties and substrate shrinkage were determined to evaluate changes over the production period. Poinsettias were grown in 1.7-L containers in the fall of 2007 and fertilized at each irrigation with 100, 200, 300, or 400 mg·L−1 nitrogen (N). Shoot dry weight and growth index were higher in PL at 100 mg·L−1 N but similar for all substrates at 300 mg·L−1 N. Bract length was generally the same or longer in all PTS-grown plants compared with plants grown in PL at each fertilizer rate. Postproduction time to wilting was the same for poinsettias grown in PL, PTS1, and PTS3. Initial and final air space was higher in all PTSs compared with PL and container capacity (CC) of PTS1 was equal to PL initially and at the end of the experiment. The initial and final CC of PTS2 was lower than PL. The incorporation of 25% peat (PTS3) increased shoot dry weight and bract length at lower fertilizer rates compared with 4.76 mm PTS alone (PTS2). Substrate shrinkage was not different between PL and PTS1 but greater than shrinkage with the coarser PTS2. This study demonstrates that poinsettia can be successfully grown in a PTS with small particles (2.38-mm screen) or a PTS with large particles (4.76-mm screen) when amended with 25% peatmoss, which results in physical properties (CC and air space) similar to those of PL.
The use of freshly harvested and processed pine trees as a container substrate for greenhouse and nursery crop production is a relatively new concept, and fundamental knowledge of the construction of a pine tree substrate (PTS) for optimal physical properties is insufficient. Therefore, this research was conducted to determine the influence of mixing PTSs produced with different wood particle sizes and adding other amendments to PTS on substrate physical properties and plant growth compared with traditional substrates. Coarse pine wood chips produced from 15-year-old loblolly pine trees (Pinus taeda L.) were ground in a hammermill fitted with either a 4.76-mm screen or with no screen (PTS-NS) allowing a fine and a coarse particle PTS to be produced. Increasing proportions of the finer (4.76-mm) PTS to the coarser PTS (PTS-NS) resulted in increased container capacity (CC) and shoot growth of ‘Inca Gold’ marigold (Tagetes erecta L.). In another study, PTSs were manufactured in a hammermill fitted with different screen sizes: 4.76, 6.35, 9.54, or 15.8 mm as well as PTS-NS. After being hammermilled, each of the five PTSs was then amended (by mixing) with 10% sand (PTS-S), 25% peatmoss (PTS-PM), or left unamended. Pine tree substrates were also produced by adding 25% aged pine bark (PB) to pine wood chips before being ground in a hammermill with each of the five screen sizes mentioned (PTS-HPB). These five substrates were used unamended as well as amended with 10% sand after grinding (PTS-HPBS). Control treatments included peat-lite (PL) and 100% aged PB for a total of 27 substrates evaluated in this study. Container capacity and marigold growth increased as screen size decreased and with the additions of peatmoss (PTS-PM) or hammering with PB (PTS-HPB) to PTS. Container capacity for all substrates amended with peatmoss or PB was within the recommended range of 45% to 65% for container substrates, but only with the more finely ground PTS-4.76-mm resulted in marigold growth comparable to PL and PB. However, when the PTS-NS was amended by mixing in 25% peat or hammering with 25% PB, growth of marigold was equal to plants grown in PL or PB. In a third study, hammering PTS-NS with 25% PB followed by the addition of 10% sand increased dry weight of both azalea (Rhododendron ×hybrida ‘Girard Pleasant White’) and spirea (Spiraea nipponica Maxim. ‘Snowmound’) resulting in growth equal to plants grown in 100% PB. This work shows that amending coarsely ground PTS with finer particle PTS or with other materials (peatmoss, aged PB, or sand) can result in a substrate with comparable physical properties such as CC and plant growth compared with 100% PL or PB.
This work was conducted to evaluate the effect of limestone additions to pine tree substrate (PTS) and PTS amended with peatmoss on pH and plant growth. ‘Inca Gold’ marigold (Tagetes erecta L.) and ‘Rocky Mountain White’ geranium (Pelargonium ×hortorum L.H. Bailey) were grown in three PTSs—100% PTS, PTS plus 25% peatmoss (v/v), and PTS plus 50% peatmoss (v/v)—made from freshly harvested loblolly pine trees (Pinus taeda L.) chipped and hammermilled through a 4.76-mm screen and a peatmoss/perlite (4:1 v/v; PL) control. Each substrate was amended with various rates of dolomitic limestone and used to grow marigolds in 10-cm square (l-L) plastic containers and geraniums in round 15-cm (1.25-L) plastic containers in a glasshouse. Regardless of limestone rate, pH was highest in 100% PTS and decreased with peat additions with PL having the lowest pH. As percent peat increased from 25% to 50%, more limestone was required to adjust pH to a particular level showing that PTS is more weakly buffered against pH change than peatmoss. Adding limestone did not increase the growth of marigold in 100% PTS, but additions of limestone did increase growth of marigold when grown in PTS containing peatmoss or in PL. Geranium growth was higher in PTS containing peatmoss (25% or 50%) and PL than in 100% PTS at all limestone rates. This research demonstrates that PTS produced from freshly harvested pine trees has an inherently higher pH than PL, and the additions of peatmoss to PTS require pH adjustment of the substrate for optimal plant growth.