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Gregor Osterc, Maja Mikulic Petkovsek, Franci Stampar, Biljana Kiprovski, Blanka Ravnjak and Joze Bavcon

Common cyclamen (Cyclamen pururascens Mill.) is a very interesting species not only for various breeding programs but also as an ornamental plant. The plants possess interesting floral and foliage characteristics, nice fragrances, and a very useful flavonol profile. The last is very important from the point of view of protecting against diseases and physiological disorders. Twenty-two different genotypes originating from different regions in Slovenia were analyzed in detail, based on their floral and foliage characteristics. Anthocyanin and flavonol contents were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-photodiode array-mass spectrometry (MS). Color characteristics were colorimetrically evaluated separately for petals and leaves. In terms of color measurements, significant differences among the sites of origin were shown with parameters a* and L* when petals were analyzed, and with parameter a* when leaves were analyzed. The pH of petal sap stayed within the acid range, ranging from 3.96 to 4.82. Five different anthocyanins (malvidin-3,5-diglucoside, cyanidin-3-neohesperidoside, delphinidin-3-glucoside, delphinidin-3,5-diglucoside, and delphinidine-3-rutinoside) were analyzed in flowers, and this is the first report of delphinidin metabolites naturally present in common cyclamen genotypes. In relation to plant leaves, malvidin-3,5-diglucoside, malvidin-3-rutinoside, malvidin-3-glucoside, cyanidin-3-neohesperidoside, and peonidin-3-neohesperidoside were measured. Fifteen different flavonols were determined in common cyclamen flowers and 10 different flavonols in common cyclamen leaves. Various glycosides of quercetin, myricetin, and kaempferol were analyzed, as well as isorhamnetin-3-rutinoside, laricitin-3-rutinoside, and neohesperidin. The floral and foliage characteristics of the genotypes (physical and chemical) were mainly affected by the environmental conditions of the locality of origin of the genotypes (annual disposition of temperature and precipitation, structure of the soil, etc.).