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  • Author or Editor: Blair Buckley x
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The Louisiana Agricultural Experiment Station has released a new pinkeye purple hull-type southernpea cultivar for the fresh market. The new cultivar, Quickpick, originated from a cross between breeding lines LA 88-74 and LA 88-9. `Quickpick' has a bush-type plant habit with synchronous pod set and is suitable for either machine- or hand-harvest. Pods of `Quickpick' are straight, ≈20 cm long, and about 8 mm in diameter. Fresh peas are green with a light-pink eye. Yield of `Quickpick' equaled or surpassed yield of `Texas Pinkeye Purple Hull' in machine-harvested replicated tests. In hand-harvested replicated tests, yield of `Quickpick' was comparable to `Texas Pinkeye Purple Hull', `Coronet', `Pinkeye Purple Hull-BVR', `Mississippi Pinkeye', and `Santee Early Pinkeye'. `Quickpick' is immune to a Georgia isolate of blackeye cowpea mosaic virus, a major virus of southernpea in the United States.

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Ease of pod detachment is an important consideration when selecting cultivars for mechanical harvest at the mature-green stage. Sixteen southernpea cultivars and breeding lines were evaluated for pod detachment force. The cultivars varied in pod detachment force. MN-13 had the largest detachment force with a measurement of 2.18 kg. Royal Cream had the smallest detachment force with a measurement of 1.2 kg. Pod length, pod diameter, pod weight, basal pod fill, and length of peduncle synapse was recorded for each pod sampled for detachment force. There was no clear association between pod detachment force and the five traits.

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Yield of southernpeas machine-harvested at the green-mature stage generally have not been sufficient for machine-harvest to be profitable. Using narrow row spacings has been proposed to increase yield per hectare. A study was conducted in 1993 and 1994 to examine the effect of row spacing on yield of machine harvested green-mature southernpeas. `Texas Pinkeye' was planted at row spacings of 53, 89, and 107 cm single drilled (SD), and 107 cm double drilled (DD). Marketable yield from the 53-cm row spacing was greater than from the wider row spacings. The yield response was primarily linear. Marketable yield from the DD 107-cm row spacing did not differ significantly from that of the SD 107-cm row spacing. Marketable yield from the DD 107-cm row spacing was less than that from the 53-cm spacing. The plant population per hectare for the two treatments was the same. In 1993, there was a linear response for percentage of pods mature at harvest. The percentage of mature pods was greatest for the 53-cm row spacing.

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An investigation was conducted in 1993 and 1994 to examine the effect of row spacing on yield and pod maturity distribution of machine-harvested, green-mature southernpeas [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp]. `Texas Pinkeye Purple Hull' was planted at row spacings of 53, 89, and 107 cm single drilled and 107 cm double drilled. Marketable yield increased linearly as row spacing decreased. A double drill on a standard 107-cm row spacing did not result in higher yield than a single drill. Marketable yield from the double-drilled, 107-cm row spacing was less than yield from the 53-cm spacing. The seeding rate per hectare for the two treatments was the same. In 1993, the mature pod percentage at harvest increased linearly as row spacing decreased. Row spacings as narrow as 53 cm can be used to increase yield of machine-harvested, green-mature southernpeas.

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Bacterial blight, incited by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. vignicola, is a major disease of cowpea. Strong resistance has not been reported in commercial cultivars. Many cultivars released within the last ten years have not been previously screened. Thirty-eight cowpea cultivars, 60 breeding lines, and 25 PIs were screened for reaction to bacterial blight in tests conducted in a greenhouse. Inoculum was adjusted turbidimetrically (OD620nm = 0.1) to approximately 108 cfu/ml. Seedling plants were inoculated by either leaf infiltration or stem puncture methods. Ratings were on a 1-6 scale in which 1 = no symptoms, 2 = localized lesions at site of inoculation, 3 = lesions spreading slightly near site of inoculation, 4 = any symptoms on systemically infected leaves or stems, 5 = extensive wilting and/or stem collapse, 6 = dead plant. All cultivars were susceptible to the pathogen. Cream-type cultivars Bettergreen, Tender Cream, Zipper Cream, Carolina Cream, and Mississippi Cream were among the most susceptible. Breeding lines MN13, MN150, TX57069-11, TX 58048-2000, and TX 59069-11 produced hypersensitive reactions in response to leaf infiltration inoculation. However, the three TX lines were rated susceptible when inoculated by stem puncture. Eighteen PIs (including PI293467, PI293521, PI293525, PI293567, and PI293571) were highly resistant to bacterial blight.

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A force gauge was used to measure the force required to detach pods from plants of 16 southernpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] cultigens. Pod detachment force (PDF) measurements ranged from 21.4 N for MN-13 to 11.8 N for `Royal Cream'. Pod length, diameter, and weight; basal pod vacancy (inverse of fill); and peduncle synapse length were recorded for each pod sampled for detachment force. There was no strong association between PDF and any of the five traits.

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Inheritance of dark green stripe and light green rind color in watermelon was investigated. Controlled crosses were made between watermelon cultivars: `Louisiana Sweet'-light green rind with dark green stripe; `Calhoun Sweet'-dark green rind without stripes; and `Charleston Gray' and `Calhoun Gray' both having light green rind without stripes. Plants of parental, F1, F2, and BC lines were classified as to rind color and presence or absence of stripe. All F1 progenies produced only striped fruit. Chi Square analysis of F2 and BC generations corresponded to 3:1 and 1:1 ratios respectively, for stripe:no stripe, indicating dark green stripe was controlled by one dominant gene. The cross `Louisiana Sweet' × `Calhoun Sweet',(light green × dark green rind color), resulted in F1 and F2 progeny having only dark green rind fruit, indicating obvious dominance for dark green rind color. Segregation in BC populations indicated a single dominant gene for dark green rind color; however, lack of segregation in the F2 suggests additional factors may be involved.

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Media contaming cotton gin trash compost, pear. and perlite were evaluated for production of bell pepper, broccoli, and cabbage transplants. Media treatments were 0:5:5; 1:4:5; 2:4:5; 3:2:5; 4:1:5; and 5:0:5 compost, peat, perlite, respectively (v/v). Separate tests were conducted for each crop. `Jupiter' pepper, `Packman' broccoli, and `Grand Slam' cabbage were seeded in 96-cell plastic trays (cell volume =39cm3). Plant height, stem diameter, and shoot and root dry weight were recorded five weeks after seeding bell pepper and broccoil, and six weeks after seeding cabbage. Pepper, broccoli, and cabbage transplants grown in media containing cotton gin trash compost had greater plant height, stem diameter, and shoot and root dry weight than transplants grown in the medium without compost as a component. The growth response to percent of compost was primarily linear.

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Abstract

Literature on blackberry leaf analysis technique is limited. In red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.), the concentration of all elements investigated was significantly influenced by sampling date (3). The least seasonal variation of elemental concentration of red raspberry leaves occurred in those located between nodes 5 and 12 from the primocane terminal (2). The objective of this study was to determine the effect of leaf part, (blade vs. petiole), and date of sampling on the foliar element concentration of three blackberry cultivars (Rubus spp.).

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The USDA, Louisiana State University, and Lincoln University have released a new southernpea cultivar named WhipperSnapper. The new cultivar is the product of a plant breeding effort to incorporate genes conditioning superior yield and seed characteristics of Asian vegetable cowpeas into American snap-type southernpeas. The new cultivar was developed for use by home gardeners and market gardeners as a dual-purpose cultivar that can be used to produce both fresh-shell peas and immature, fresh pods or snaps. Typical ready-to-harvest WhipperSnapper snaps are green colored, 6.4 mm in diameter, 7.6 mm in height, and 24 cm long; the pods are slightly curved at the attachment end. Typical mature-green pods suitable for fresh-shell harvest exhibit an attractive yellow color, are 25 cm long, and contain 14 peas. Fresh peas are cream-colored, kidney-shaped, and weigh 24.5 g/100 peas. Dry pods exhibit a light straw color, and the dry peas have a smooth seed coat. The quality of WhipperSnapper seed is excellent. In replicated field trials, WhipperSnapper produced significantly greater yields of both snaps and peas than the snap-type cultivar Bettersnap. WhipperSnapper has potential for use as a mechanically-harvested source of snaps for use by food processors in mixed packs of peas and snaps. Protection for WhipperSnapper is being sought under the Plant Variety Protection Act.

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