Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 35 items for

  • Author or Editor: Bharat P. Singh x
Clear All Modify Search
Free access

Bharat P. Singh and Wayne F. Whitehead

In literature, amaranth is described as a stress tolerant crop. However, most of the investigations have been concerned with the production of grain crop. The soil moisture regime which promotes maximum vegetative growth is yet to be established. During 1993, the vegetative growth response of amaranth to different soil moisture levels was determined in a greenhouse study. Amaranth cultivar Hin Choy was grown in Dothan sandy loam soil at four soil moisture levels of 6.0, 9.0, 12.0 and 14.0% (w/w) in a randomized complete block experiment with ten replications. Plant height, leaf number, leaf area, leaf fresh and dry weight, stem fresh and dry weight, root fresh and dry weight, leaf-stem ratio, and stem fresh and dry weight were recorded. All parameters gained significantly with each increment in the soil moisture level up to 12%. There was no difference in plant response between 12% and 14% soil moisture. The study indicated that for optimum vegetative growth, amaranth requires a moisture stress free soil environment.

Free access

Wayne F. Whitehead and Bharat P. Singh

During the 2004–05 growing season, a study was conducted to determine effect of cover crop, their mixture and fertilizer N rates on above ground biomass (AGB) yields, and Leaf Area Index (LAI) of Bt sweet corn. The following cover crop nitrogen fertility treatments were applied using randomized complete-block design with three replications: 1) fall-0 N, fallow; spring-0 N, 2) fall-0 N, abruzzi rye; spring-0 N, 3) fall-0 N, hairy vetch; spring-0 N, 4) fall-0 N, abruzzi rye+hairy vetch; spring-0 N, 5) fall-0 N, fallow; spring-101 kg N/ha, 6) fall-0 N, abruzzi rye; spring-101 kg N/ha, 7) fall-0 N, hairy vetch; spring-101 kg N/ha, 8) fall-0 N, abruzzi rye+hairy vetch; spring-101 kg N/ha, 9) fall-0 N, fallow; spring-202 kg N/ha, 10) fall-0 N, abruzzi rye; spring-202 kg N/ha, 11) fall-0 N, hairy vetch; spring-202 kg N/ha, and 12) fall-0 N, abruzzi rye+hairy vetch; spring-202 kg N/ha. In Spring 2005, `Attribute BSS0977' bi-color (BC) supersweet (sh2) corn seeds were field planted. AGB yields were collected during harvest week while LAI was recorded at tasseling (6/27), silking (7/8) and one week after harvest (7/25). Hairy vetch; spring-101 kg N/ha produced highest LAI at tasseling (2.18), silking (2.73), and one week after harvest (2.57). Lowest LAI at tasseling (1.12) and silking(1.60) were produced by abruzzi rye; spring-0 N with fallow; spring-0 N producing lowest LAI (1.40) one week after harvest. Maximum AGB fresh (40.5 Mg/ha) and dry weight (12.1 Mg/ha) yields were produced by hairy vetch; spring-101kg N/ha, while minimum AGB fresh (9.6 Mg/ha) and dry weight (3.6 Mg/ha) yields were produced by abruzzi rye; spring-0 N. Results imply LAI at each growth stage and AGB yields of this BCsh2 corn variety are best supported by hairy vetch supplemented with N at 101 kg/ha.

Free access

Wayne F. Whitehead and Bharat P. Singh

The effect of in-row plant densities on gas exchange, chlorophyll content and leaf area index of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench) was studied. The six in-row plant densities ranged from 8 cm to 48 cm (D1 - D6). On 11 and 27 July 1990, the photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), transpiration (E), net photosynthesis (Pn) and chlorophyll content (Chl) at top- and mid-canopy levels and leaf area index (LAI) were measured. Mid-canopy PAR was 86 ± 6% less than that of the top-canopy and E, Pn and Chl at mid-canopy were respectively 55, 90 and 10% lower than those of the top-canopy. The interaction of plant density with canopy position was significant for E and Pn. The highest E and Pn, (12.28 mmol m-2 s-1 and 22.01 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1, respectively) were recorded at the D5 top-canopy. In-contrast, the lowest E and Pn, (4.17 mmol m-2 s-l and 1.23 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1, respectively) at the D6 mid-canopy were recorded. The LAI also exhibited significant variation among plant densities with a range of 4.65 to 4.97 for D5 and D3, respectively. These results indicate that 40 cm in-row density was the most suited for gas exchange of okra.

Free access

Wayne F. Whitehead and Bharat P. Singh

The effects of differing soil moisture levels on the vegetative components of vegetable amaranth, Amaranthus tricolor RRC no. 241, were evaluated. A completely randomized design with 10 replications and 4 treatments (3,6,13, & 18% soil moisture) was followed. Leaf, stem, plant, root fresh weight and leaf area (LFW, SFW, PFW, RFW, and LA, respectively)—were recorded 48 days after planting. For each of the vegetative components the only significant difference (P ≤ 0.05) occurred between 3% versus 6-18% soil moistures, with moisture level of 6-18% showing no significant variation among themselves. The mean ranges for LFW (28.3-32.7 g), STW (6.9-9.2 g), PFW (41.3-48.2 g), RFW (8.6-12.8 g), and LA (1049-1222 cm2) across 6-18% soil moisture were approximately four times greater than the vegetative components of 3% soil moisture. From these preliminary results, it appears that vegetable amaranth has the ability to grow and perform well over a 6-18% soil moisture range, indicating an ability to better adjust and adapt to changing soil moisture environments.

Free access

Bharat P. Singh and James D. Sutton

Little is known about the morphology of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus Moench) plant. This information is critical to understanding of plant growth and possible factors limiting yield. Therefore, a field study was conducted during 1989 to determine the changes in leaf number, leaf dry weight and stem dry weight in okra during the fruiting period. Four okra genotypes, PI-178818, PI-211573, Lee and Clemson spineless, were planted in randomized complete block design with four replications. All four genotypes had similar stem dry weight, but differed significantly in leaf number and leaf dry weight. During the reproductive period, 42% of new leaves, 61% of leaf dry weight and 82% of stern dry weight were formed. PI-178818 had highest leaf number and maximum leaf dry weight, but produced lowest fruit yield. The results suggested that since vegetative growth and fruiting proceeds simultaneously in okra, partitioning of dry weight to pod maybe critical for high okra yields.

Free access

Bharat P. Singh and Wayne F. Whitehead

The effect of soil moisture and pH levels on the vegetative growth of amaranth were studied in the greenhouse during 1990-91. Three soil pH levels: 4.5, 5.3, and 6.4 and four soil water levels: 3, 6, 12 and 18% (w/w) comprised the treatments of the two studies. The plants grown in pH 6.4 were significantly taller and had greater leaf area than plants grown in pH 5.3 or 4.7 soil. There was a significant decrease in all above ground plant parts with each increase in soil acidity. The top fresh weight of plants grown in 5.6 and 4.7 pH soil were 27% and 73% lower, respectively, than plant grown in 6.4 pH soil. Plant grown in 3% soil water had significantly lower leaf, stem and root fresh weights than other soil water levels. There was no significant difference in the performance of plants grown in 6, 12 or 18% soil water, suggesting that amaranth plant is adapted to a wide range of soil moisture conditions.

Free access

Wayne F. Whitehead and Bharat P. Singh

The goal of this study was to compare the effect of leguminous and non-leguminous cover crops alone or in mixture with fertilizer nitrogen rates on kernel weight, ear number, and yield of Bt sweet corn. The following fall-spring fertility treatments were applied using randomized complete-block design with three replications: 1) fall-0 N, fallow; spring-0 N, 2) fall-0 N, abruzzi rye; spring-0 N, 3) fall-0 N, hairy vetch; spring-0 N, 4) fall-0 N, abruzzi rye+hairy vetch; spring-0 N, 5) fall-0 N, fallow; spring-101 kg N/ha, 6) fall-0 N, abruzzi rye; spring-101 kg N/ha, 7) fall-0 N, hairy vetch; spring-101 kg N/ha, 8) fall-0 N, abruzzi rye+hairy vetch; spring-101 kg N/ha, 9) fall-0 N, fallow; spring-202 kg N/ha, 10) fall-0 N, abruzzi rye; spring-202 kg N/ha, 11) fall-0 N, hairy vetch; spring-202 kg N/ha, and 12) fall-0 N, abruzzi rye+hairy vetch; spring-202 kg N/ha. In Spring of 2005, `Attribute BSS0977' bi-color (BC) supersweet (sh2) corn seeds were field planted. Total unhusked ear yield and ear number were harvested 74 days after planting, while kernel weight was measured from three randomly chosen ears. Maximum kernel fresh weight (111.6 g/ear), ear number (101,773/ha) and total yield (17.3 Mg/ha) were produced by hairy vetch; spring-101 kg N/ha. Minimum kernel fresh weight (23.0 g/ear) and ear number (51,485/ha) were produced by fallow; spring-0 N, while minimum total yield (2.2 Mg/ha) was produced by abruzzi rye; spring-0 N. Results indicate that hairy vetch supplemented with N at 101 kg/ha is most effective in supporting kernel fresh weight, ear number and yield of this BCsh2 corn variety.