The use of resistant cultivars against Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc) is considered a critical management practice for black rot (BR) management in cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata). Although most studies that have evaluated resistance to BR were conducted in greenhouses without accounting for yield, there is a clear need to investigate cultivar performance under field conditions. The objectives of this study were to evaluate commercial cabbage cultivars for resistance to BR and determine yield and head quality under field conditions. Field experiments with eight cultivars (Acclaim, Bravo, Capture, Celebrate, Cheers, Melissa, Monterey, and TCA-549) were conducted in two cabbage growing seasons, Fall 2018 and Spring 2019. Fields were spray-inoculated with Xcc (3 × 105 cfu/mL) at 35 and 49 days after transplanting in Fall 2018 and Spring 2019, respectively. Cabbage BR severity was evaluated at weekly intervals starting from 7 days postinoculation (DPI) until harvest. Marketable and unmarketable yields and cabbage head quality were measured at harvest. Cabbage BR symptoms were detected in all tested cultivars for both growing seasons with initial symptoms observed as early as 28 and 21 DPI in Fall 2018 and Spring 2019, respectively. Severity of cabbage BR at harvest was significantly greater in Fall 2018 compared with Spring 2019, whereas marketable yield was significantly higher in Spring 2019 (45,169 lb/acre) compared with Fall 2018 (26,370 lb/acre). In both growing seasons, ‘TCA-549’ had the lowest severity of BR and ‘Melissa’ had the highest severity of BR. Area under the disease progress curve (AUDPC) was 175 and 13 for ‘TCA-549’ in Fall 2018 and Spring 2019, respectively. The AUDPC for ‘Melissa’ in Fall 2018 and Spring 2019 were 2376 and 905, respectively. Regardless of growing season, cabbage marketable yield was higher for ‘Acclaim’ (51,760 lb/acre) compared with all other cultivars; however, there was no significant difference between Acclaim and TCA-549 (42,934 lb/acre) for cabbage marketable yield. Cabbage marketable yield was the lowest for cultivars Melissa (18,275 lb/acre) and Capture (24,236 lb/acre). Overall, there was a significant correlation between BR disease severity and cabbage marketable and unmarketable yields. Increasing the BR severity decreased cabbage marketability due to an increase in unmarketable yields. Continued development of cultivar resistance to BR is important for cabbage production in the southeastern United States, given the favorable conditions for disease development. The use of cultivars with low susceptibility, pathogen-free seeds, crop rotation, and proper spraying programs should be considered the best management practice for BR disease.
Andre Luiz Biscaia Ribeiro da Silva, Joara Secchi Candian, Elizanilda Ramalho do Rego, Timothy Coolong, and Bhabesh Dutta
Joara Secchi Candian, Timothy Coolong, Bhabesh Dutta, Rajagopalbabu Srinivasan, Alton Sparks, Apurba Barman, and Andre Luiz Biscaia Ribeiro da Silva
Large populations of sweetpotato whiteflies (Bemisia tabaci) have become more regular occurrences during the fall months in parts of the southeastern United States. Large populations of sweetpotato whiteflies have resulted in a significant increase in the incidence of sweetpotato whitefly-transmitted viruses, particularly the cucurbit leaf crumple virus (CuLCrV), which has the potential to cause complete yield loss of fall-planted yellow squash and zucchini (Cucurbita pepo). This study evaluated commercial cultivars of yellow squash and zucchini for resistance against CuLCrV and estimated the yield and fruit quality under environmental conditions during the fall growing season in the southeastern United States. A factorial experimental design was conducted with nine yellow squash and 11 zucchini cultivars during Fall 2017, Fall 2018, and Fall 2019 in Tifton, GA. In situ weather stations monitored the weather conditions during growing seasons, and yellow pest monitor cards monitored the sweetpotato whitefly populations in 2018 and 2019. During all growing seasons, yellow squash and zucchini plants were rated weekly for the severity of CuLCrV. Harvests were conducted 12 times during each season, and fruit were graded as fancy, medium, and culls. Rainfall distribution directly affected the sweetpotato whitefly populations during the production year. In 2018, frequent rainfall events created field conditions that reduced the sweetpotato whitefly populations compared with those during 2017 and 2019. The severity of CuLCrV negatively impacted both the yield and quality of fruit of yellow squash and zucchini, and no resistant commercial cultivars of yellow squash or zucchini were identified. Nonetheless, the yellow squash cultivars Lioness, Gold Prize, and Grand Prize, and the zucchini cultivars SV6009YG and SV0914YG had the highest yields when subjected to the highest sweetpotato whitefly populations during the study.