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Moo R. Huh, Beyoung H. Kwack, and Leonard P. Perry

In this experiment, the effects of salinity from 0.0%, 0.5%, 1.0%, and 5.0 % NaCl on Hibiscus syriacus L. and Hibiscus hamabo Sieb. & Zucc. seed germination with various temperature and Ca treatments was investigated in petri dishes with 10 ml of distilled water or with the appropriate saline solution. At 11 days after treatment, the highest germination rate was obtained at 20C with H. syriacus and 25C with H. hamabo without NaCl and Ca treatments. At 25C, only H. hamabo seeds germinated with 1% NaCl, with dry and fresh weight increasing as Ca concentration increased. With 0.5% NaCl treatment, the germination rate of H. hamabo and H. syriacus increased as Ca concentrations (0.0, 13.35, and 133.5 mM) increased. Without NaCl treatments, hypocotyl and leaf length and width of H. syriacus were longer than those of H. hamabo; with NaCl treatments, the inverse was true.

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Moo R. Huh, Beyoung H. Kwack, and Leonard P. Perry

Salt injury was induced by 5% (w/v) NaCl drenching on Hibiscus hamabo Sieb. & Zucc. and H. syriacus L. seedlings. Total chlorophyll content of H. hamabo was higher than that of H. syriacus. Uniconazole (0.0, 0.5, 1.0, and 5.0 mg·liter–1) treatment increased and 25- or 50-mg·liter–1 GA3 treatment decreased chlorophyll content of H. hamabo. Total chlorophyll content of H. syriacus was not affected by uniconazole or GA3. Total carbohydrate content of H. syriacus was more accumulated than that of H. homabo. Total carbohydrate content of H. hamabo was more decreased than that of H. syriacus by Ca (13.35 or 133.5 mM), uniconazole, or GA3 in relation to total carbohydrate contents. Protein contents of H. hamabo were higher than those of H. syriacus. Uniconazole or GA3 increased those of H. hamabo and decreased those of H. syriacus. Peroxidase activity of H. hamabo was higher than that of H. syriacus. Uniconazole decreased that of H. hamabo and increased that of H. syriacus. GA3 or Ca (13.35 mM) treatment increased that of both species. ATPase activity of H. hamabo was higher than that of H. syriacus. Uniconazole (5 mg·liter–1), GA3, or Ca decreased that of H. hamabo increased that of H. syriacus.

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Moo R. Huh, Beyoung H. Kwack, and Leonard P. Perry

Shoot length, leaf length and width, root length, and crown diameter were affected by 0.0-, 0.5-, 1.0-, and 5.0-mg·liter–1 uniconazole drench and 25- or 50-mg·liter–1 GA3 spray but not significantly by 0.0%, 2.5%, and 5.0% NaCl. Leaf width of H. syriacus Sieb. & Zucc. was not affected and that of H. syriacus L. significantly decreased, as NaCl concentration increased. Effect of NaCl on H. syriacus leaf width was offset by treatment with uniconazole but not by GA3 treatment. With 2.5% NaCl, dry weight of H. hamabo treated with uniconazole or GA3 increased and that of treated H. syriacus decreased. With 5.0% NaCl, dry weight of both species decreased with uniconazole or GA3. Calcium at 13.35 or 133.5 mM decreased the reduction of dry weight by NaCl treatment. The dry: fresh weight ratio of H. hamabo and H. syriacus treated with NaCl plus uniconazole was higher than that only treated with NaCl. GA3 treatment with NaCl did not affect the dry: fresh weight ratio for either species