Big vein is a disease of lettuce; symptoms include vein clearing and delayed head formation. Big vein virus is vectored by a fungus that inhabits lettuce roots. We developed a greenhouse screening procedure to evaluate cultivars and breeding materials for resistance, which is relative and based on the proportion of plants in a population that show no symptoms at an arbitrary time after inoculation. We have screened 744 cultivars in preliminary tests. Of these, 49 showed promise for resistance. Eleven of the promising cultivars showed consistent resistance in replicated greenhouse and field trials. In breeding populations, reaction of single plants is not as reliable an indicator of resistance as the reaction of plant groups. Therefore, F3 families are more useful than the F2 for screening. Field test rankings of materials selected with this method are consistent with greenhouse evaluations.
Screening for lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) big-vein resistance in the F2 generation is highly inefficient. Efficiency improves in the F3 and following generations with continued inbreeding. Traits useful in ascertaining resistance are 0% of plants showing symptoms and percentage of plants showing symptoms at a given date. Breeding lines identified as resistant in greenhouse screening have proved resistant under field conditions. Forty-nine cultivars have been identified in preliminary testing as potentially resistant. Of these, 11 have been confirmed as resistant in greenhouse and field tests.
Big vein (BV) disease of lettuce is caused by soil borne fungal vectored viruses, and reduces marketability through head deformation. Tolerant cultivars reduce BV frequency, but no resistant cultivars exist. L. virosa L. is highly resistance. The objectives were to 1) determine if L. virosa P.I.s exhibit variation for resistance, and 2) determine if resistance is transferable to lettuce. Seedlings were inoculated with root macerate of BV infected plants, transplanted to BV infested soil, and greenhouse grown for 3 months. Twelve plants in each of 1,2, or 3 reps of Great Lakes 65 (GL65-susceptible), Pavane (Pav-tolerant), L. virosa (11 accessions), and BC1 F2 through F5 families of lettuce cultivars x L. virosa accession IVT280 were tested. The percentage of BV afflicted plants was recorded. In hybrid families, BV free plants from tolerant families were selected and advanced. No BV was found in L. virosa. Variation for tolerance was observed in BC1 F2 and F3 families; 33% had greater tolerance than Pav (17% afflicted). Additional tests identified 11 BC1 F3 families (14%) with greater tolerance than Pav (42% afflicted). Subsequent BC1 F4 and F5 generations however, were more susceptible than Pav. Lactuca virosa is highly resistant, but resistance did not transfer to hybrid progeny. Variation for tolerance was observed in BC1 F2 and F3 families, but later generations were susceptible. Interactions or linkage of genes for developmental processes and BV resistance may hinder introgression. Introgression will continue using congruity backcrossing and a greater diversity of L. virosa.
Media fertility, plant nutrient availability, and subsequent plant nutrition are critical factors in the production of quality landscape plant materials. The method of mixing slow-release fertilizers into the media prior to planting is becoming more widespread. This study evaluates different controlled-release fertilizers, their rates of release, and three methods of irrigation regarding water-use efficiency and effects on plant growth performance. The combined effects of fertility and irrigation practices on nutrient loss to the environment are also being monitored. Although the ranking of fertility treatments, based on plant quality, varied among species, Woodace 21–4–10, Sierra 17–6–10, Sierra High N (24–4–6, Scotts 20–7–10, (270–26.67 lb/yd3), Woodace 20–5–10, Polyon 25–4–12, Nutricote 18–6–8 (270–30 lb/yd3), and Nutricote 18–6–8 (270–20 lb/yd3) produced high-quality plants for most of the species evaluated. The control and Nutri-Pak 18–6–12 treatments resulted in relatively poor-quality plants across the board. The effects of irrigation techniques on leachate analysis are being completed.