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- Author or Editor: Benigno Villalon x
The major disease responsible for the decline of profitable pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) production in Texas have been the potato-Y-type viruses. ‘Tambel-2’ is a sweet bell pepper with multiple virus resistances (MVR) to tobacco mosaic (TMV), tobacco etch (TEV), potato Y (PVY), and pepper mottle (PeMV).
The major diseases responsible for the decline of profitable pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) production in Texas have been the potato-Y-type viruses. This viral complex also causes major losses in the pungent serrano-type pepper. The hot serrano, one of about 20 different cultivated types, has fruits that may be between 2 to 10 cm long by 1 to 1.5 cm in diameter, conical to cylindrical and tapering to a pointed or blunt end. It is grown throughout the United States but is most popular in the southwest.
JALORO is a multiple virus resistant (MVR) open pollinated pepper cultivar developed by Texas Agricultural Experiment Station at Weslaco. This pungent, cylindrical (fruit with blunt end) yellow jalapeño cultivar possesses high levels of resistance to several isolates of Texas tobacco etch virus, potato virus Y, pepper mottle virus, tobacco ringspot virus, cucumber mosaic virus and tobacco mosaic virus. The genotype combines desirable characteristics of commercial hot yellow wax `Caloro'(TMR), the jalapeño genome from `Jalapeño-L' and Jalapeño 1158, and MVR genes from AC2207 (hot serrano) and PI 264280. `Jaloro' has the ability to set fruit at temperatures above 35C. It has a concentrated flower setting habit, sets fruits earlier and matures more uniformly than `Caloro'. The singlestem plant will support a heavy set of large thick yellow jalapeño fruit which can be mechanically harvested. It is suited for fresh market in salads or as a processed product, pickled whole, sliced as `nacho' rings or diced in picante sauces.
Erwin (2) made the first attempt to classify pepper cultivars for horticultural purposes in 1932. Both the cultivars now used and our knowledge of this plant have changed greatly, so that Erwin's classification has little value at the present time.
‘TAMBel-2’ bell pepper transplants (Capsicum annuum L.) were grown in a greenhouse for 39 days in north–south (N–S) oriented trays. About 69% of the plants had monodirectional (one plane pointing either N–S, E–W, NW–SE, or SW–NE) lateral root patterns, 23% had bidirectional (two planes), and 7% had omnidirectional (all around) root patterns relative to a N–S greenhouse tray orientation. Transplants were planted with cotyledons N–S (parallel to the N–S bed), with cotyledons E–W (perpendicular to the N–S bed), and at random, without regard to orientation. These plants subsequently were cultivated either deeply (9 cm) or shallowly (3 cm) 3, 5, and 7 weeks after transplanting. Transplants planted E–W by cotyledon orientation yielded significantly more early and overall marketable pods in contrast to those planted N–S by cotyledon orientation or at random. Deep cultivation decreased productivity in contrast to shallow cultivation and negated any benefit to E–W cotyledon orientation. Root and cotyledon orientations in field-seeded peppers were determined for ‘Hidalgo’, ‘TAM-Mild Chile-2’, ‘TAMBel-2’, and ‘Grand Rio 66’ peppers ≈2 months after field-seeding. At least 95% of the populations in all cultivars had monodirectional root orientations. Generally, orientations were divided equally among N–S, E–W, NW–SE, and NE–SW directions. Cotyledon orientation highly correlated with root orientation in all cultivars.
The major diseases responsible for the decline of profitable pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) production in Texas and other areas throughout the United States and the world have been the potato Y-type viruses (1). ‘TAM Mild Chile-2’ (TMC-2) is the first mildly pungent long green/red chile with multiple virus resistance (MVR) to tobacco etch virus (TEV), potato virus Y (PVY), pepper mottle virus (PeMV), and tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) developed by the Texas Agricultural Experiment Station (TAES). It is recommended as a multi-purpose chile for fresh market, for processing in the green stage, or dehydration into red chile powder. The fruit exhibit a very low pungency and a high concentration of extractable red color.