Eucalyptus mulch is considered by many horticulturists to be toxic to cultivated plants and weeds. The purpose of this study was to determine the weed suppressive effect of mulch made from various Eucalyptus species. Propagation flats were seeded with 100 seeds each of nine weed species and covered with peat-perlite media, or composted or fresh Eucalyptus globulus, E. citriodora, E. rudus, E. polyanthemos, E. sideroxylon, E. maculata or E. ficifolia. Fresh mulch suppressed germination of all species. Compost mulched weeds seeds germinated more and produced more dry weight than fresh mulch treatments. Barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crusgalli) died in all flats treated with fresh E. sideroxylon.
A. James Downer and Ben Faber
Ben Faber, James Downer and Lori Yates
Soil moisture status can be measured using neutron probes, time domain reflectometry, tensiometers, gravimetric methods, and electrical resistance blocks. Most methods have limitations; they may be time-consuming (gravimetric), expensive (neutron probe, time domain), or fixed in place (tensiometer, gypsum block, and neutron probe) (Schmugge, 1980; Weems, 1991). Water management in droughty, urban areas of the country would benefit from identification of a portable, fast, and relatively inexpensive soil moisture measuring device suitable for use in urban lawns and gardens. In this study, we have identified an instrument that may be suitable for this purpose.
Jim Downer, Ben Faber and John Menge
Mulches can exert positive (disease controlling) or negative (disease enhancing) potential when applied to young avocado (Persea americana) trees. Regulation of root disease in avocado is a complicated process that is affected by host resistance, inoculum density, temperature, soil salinity and soil water potential. There are short-term immediate effects from mulching and subtle long-term effects that regulate disease caused by the root rot pathogen Phytophthora cinnamomi. Short-term effects include increased soil moisture and soil temperature moderation. Long-term effects include increases of: soil mineral nutrients, soil aggregation and drainage; microbial activity; and cellulase enzyme activities. Biological control of Phytophthora in mulched soil is partially regulated by cellulase enzyme activities. This soil enzyme concept of biological control is discussed in regard to the classical Ashburner method of biological control.
A. James Downer, Ben Faber and Richard White
Three polymers (a polyacrylamide, polyacrylate and a propenoate-propenamide copolymer) and three organic amendments (peat moss, wood shavings, and composted yardwaste) were incorporated at five rates in a sandy soil to 15cm depth. Soil moisture content was determined by time domain reflectometry and gravimetrically. Only the highest polymer rates (2928kg/ha [60#/1000sq.ft.]) produced significant increases in soil moisture content and reductions of soil bulk density. Peat moss and yardwaste increased soil water content while shavings decreased water content. Turf quality scores were not affected by polymers but were initially reduced by yardwaste and shavings.
David E. Crowley, Woody Smith, Ben Faber and John A. Manthey
Methods for Zn fertilization of `Hass' avocado (Persea americana Mill.) trees were evaluated in a 2-year field experiment on a commercial orchard located on a calcareous soil (pH 7.8) in Ventura County, Calif. The fertilization methods included soil- or irrigation-applied ZnSO4; irrigation-applied Zn chelate (Zn-EDTA); trunk injection of Zn(NO3)2, and foliar applications of ZnSO4, ZnO, or Zn metalosate. Other experiments evaluated the influence of various surfactants on the Zn contents of leaves treated with foliar-applied materials and on the retention and translocation of radiolabeled 65ZnSO4 and 65Zn metalosate after application to the leaf surface. In the field experiment, tree responses to fertilization with soil-applied materials were affected significantly by their initial status, such that only trees having <50 μg·g–1 had significant increases in foliar Zn contents after fertilization. Among the three soil and irrigation treatments, ZnSO4 applied at 3.2 kg ZnSO4 per tree either as a quarterly irrigation or annually as a soil application was the most effective and increased leaf tissue Zn concentrations to 75 and 90 μg·g–1, respectively. Foliar-applied ZnSO4, ZnO, and Zn metalosate with Zn at 5.4, 0.8, and 0.9 g·liter–1, respectively, also resulted in increased leaf Zn concentrations. However, experiments with 65Zn applied to leaves of greenhouse seedlings showed that <1% of Zn applied as ZnSO4 or Zn metalosate was actually taken up by the leaf tissue and that there was little translocation of Zn into leaf parenchyma tissue adjacent to the application spots or into the leaves above or below the treated leaves. Given these problems with foliar Zn, fertilization using soil- or irrigation-applied ZnSO4 may provide the most reliable method for correction of Zn deficiency in avocado on calcareous soils.
Elizabeth Mitcham, William Biasi, Mark Gaskell, Ben Faber and Ramiro Lobo
Blueberry fruit were harvested at commercial maturity from variety trials and shipped overnight to UC Davis. Fruit quality was evaluated upon receipt and after 6 and 20 days of cold storage at 0.5 °C in air shelf life. Firmness, external color, soluble solids, and titratable acidity were measured. Sensory evaluations were conducted by trained tasters to rate the blueberries for crispness, mealiness, sweetness, tartness, blueberry flavor, and off-flavors at harvest and again after 21 days of storage. Many of the blueberries increased in firmness during cold storage. Firmness at harvest tended to be softer in `Santa Fe' and `Jewel' and firmer in `Star'. Sensory data also found `Sharpblue' and `Southmoon' to be more firm; however the objective measurements did not agree. Overall, `Saphire' was low in sugars and acids, and `Jewell' and `Star' were high in acids. `Misty' and `Sharpblue' were consistently high in sugars and acids. Overall objective fruit quality ratings were highest for `Misty', `Sharpblue', and `Southmoon', and lowest for `Santa Fe'. Blueberry flavor was rated highest in `Jewell', `Star', and `Sharpblue', and lowest in `Santa Fe', `Saphire', `Misty', and `Emerald'. These data indicate that blueberry flavor may be closely tied to acid content, as most of the high-flavor varieties had high acid and many of the low-flavor varieties had low acid. Over 3 years, the varieties consistently rated highest for overall objective quality were `Misty' and `Southmoon'. `Star' was rated high for overall quality in 2 years and moderate in 1. `Jewell', `Star', and `Sharpblue' were rated highest in flavor. `Santa Fe' was ranked low in flavor quality in 2 out of 3 years. Selection of variety appears to have a strong influence on the sensory quality of the blueberries marketed.
John A. Menge, Greg W. Douhan, Brandon McKee, Elinor Pond, Gary S. Bender and Ben Faber
Julie Newman, Kristine Gilbert, Ben Faber, Donald Merhaut, Laosheng Wu, Jay Gan and Richard Evans
Nursery growers must implement “Best Management Practices” (BMPs) to mitigate runoff and leaching of pollutants. However, there is little data on the effectiveness of BMPs, and further research is needed. Growers require training to minimize runoff and capital to comply with evolving regulations. We collected irrigation efficiency data at 26 nursery sites using catch cans. Uniformity value was calculated as: DU = 100 × (Average of the “Low Quarter”/Average of All Measurements). Results showed that one-third of the nurseries had irrigation uniformities below 67%, and only one nursery exceeded 82%. Continuous flow monitoring at 10-minute intervals was conducted at three nursery sites to determine daily and monthly variation. One hundred samples of the runoff were taken four times at each nursery and analyzed for nitrate, chloride, and sulfate. We developed a 29-page checklist of BMPs to reduce runoff, which we used to survey 53 growers in Ventura County. After completing the survey, 20 growers applied for funds from a 1.2 million dollar cost-share program that we initiated. This program provides funds to implement improved technologies to reduce runoff and/or conserve water; funds were awarded to 18 nurseries. We are collecting monitoring data from each cooperating nursery implementing improvements. These data measure the number of BMPs used by growers, provide a current “snapshot” of the industry, and document the effectiveness of future BMP implementation. We offer on-farm consulting, and conducted eight water quality/irrigation educational programs—four in Spanish. We elevated grower awareness concerning regulations and options for reducing runoff, and the data will be useful in evaluating future improvements.
Ben A. Faber, A. James Downer, Dirk Holstege and Maren J. Mochizuki
Soil testing is an important component of a plant nutrient management program for farmers, home gardeners, and agricultural service personnel. Results from five commercially available colorimetric soil test kits were compared with standard laboratory analyses for pH, nitrate–nitrogen (NO3), phosphorus (P2O5), and potassium (K2O) content for Salinas clay loam soil with three cropping histories. The kits ranked in accuracy (frequency of match with analytical laboratory results) in the following sequence: La Motte Soil Test Kit, Rapitest, Quick Soiltest, Nitty-Gritty, and Soil Kit at 94%, 92%, 64%, 36%, and 33%. NO3 was most accurately determined by Rapitest and Quick Soiltest, P2O5 by Rapitest, and pH by La Motte Soil Test Kit. K2O was determined with equal accuracy by all but Soil Kit. The composition of the extractants may be an important factor affecting the accuracy of the test kit. For example, all kit extractants for K2O were composed of the same chemical and matched analytical laboratory results 82% of the time. By contrast, kits using an acid-based extractant for NO3 analysis more frequently matched the analytical laboratory results than kits using a zinc-based extractant (P ≤ 0.0001). La Motte Soil Test Kit had the largest range of pH measures, whereas Rapitest was relatively easy to use and interpret and is a practical choice for home gardeners or landscapers; both were more than 90% accurate for this soil type. Although an important limitation of commercial test kits is the approximate or categorical value of nutrient content (i.e., low, medium, high), accurate test kits can yield results quickly and economically for improved nutrient management.
Salvatore S. Mangiafico, Julie Newman, Donald J. Merhaut, Jay Gan, Ben Faber and Laosheng Wu
Potential water quality impacts of agricultural production include runoff and leaching losses of nutrients, pesticides, and sediment. Stormwater runoff and soil water samples were collected from citrus (Citrus spp.), avocado (Persea americana), and ornamental nursery sites in Ventura County, CA, across 19 months. Nitrate–nitrite–nitrogen concentrations in runoff ranged from 0.07 to 31.1 mg·L−1, with medians for groves and nurseries of 4.2 and 5.7 mg·L−1, respectively. Constituents in runoff exceeding benchmarks for surface waters included turbidity, chlorpyrifos, and some organochlorine pesticides. When detected, chlorpyrifos concentration was linearly related to sample turbidity (P = 0.0025, r2 = 0.49). This suggests that the retention of waterborne sediments on-site may be an effective method for mitigating runoff of this pesticide. Bifenthrin, permethrin, and diazinon were also detected in runoff, but concentrations did not exceed water quality benchmarks. Nutrient concentrations in soil water were generally similar to nutrient concentrations in stormwater runoff, suggesting that potential groundwater contamination from leaching at citrus, avocado, and nursery sites may be as much of a concern as stormwater from these operations, particularly on sites with sandy or structured soil texture or flat topography. Nitrate–nitrite–nitrogen and orthophosphate concentrations in soil water were linearly related to nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer application rates across sites, respectively (P < 0.0001, r2 = 0.49 and 0.50, respectively), suggesting that proper nutrient management is important in reducing potential groundwater contamination at these operations.