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Becky R. Hughes and Adam Dale

Four winter-hardy strawberry selections and three cultivars where planted in northern Ontario in 2003 in a split-split plot trial where half the rows were mulched and half were left uncovered for the winter. Within each split plot, half the rows were sprayed for tarnished plant bugs and half were not. Yield and tarnish plant bug damage data was collected for two picking years. Two selections maintained their yields in the unmulched plots compared to the mulched plots. Yield for one of these selections was higher in the unmulched plots the first picking year and equal to the mulched plots in the second year. The remaining cultivars and selections produced less when not mulched for the winter. Except for the two selections that maintained their yields in the unmulched plots, plots where straw was applied for the winter had less tarnish plant bug damage. When the plots were sprayed for tarnish plant bugs, damage was reduced for most but not all selections and cultivars.

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Adam Dale, Becky R. Hughes, and Danielle Donnelly

Micropropagation of strawberries is an extremely effective tool to rid strawberry plants of Colletotrichum infections. The continued health of these plants depends on a vigorous sanitation program throughout the nursery system in North America. Propagating healthy strawberry plants requires a series of steps: plants are micropropagated, virus-tested, screened for fungal and bacterial pathogens, and finally grown under strict guidelines for two growing seasons in propagator's fields. In the propagator's fields, the plants are inspected for visual symptoms of diseases and checked for trueness-to-type. This paper reviews the protocols used to develop specific pathogen-tested strawberry plants in Ontario and, where appropriate, discusses alternate techniques.

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Becky R. Hughes*, Wanda J. Cook, and Candy N.F. Keith

In vitro rooting and subsequent greenhouse survival of `Autumn Britten', `Boyne', `Comet',`Nova' and `Qualicum' raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) plantlets were compared following four weeks on a rooting medium with and without activated charcoal, and with 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 or 3.0 milligrams per litre IBA. The addition of charcoal significantly increased the percentage of plantlets that produced roots in vitro for the hard-to-root cultivars. Percent rooting in vitro was highest with the three lower levels of IBA. Root number was influenced only by the cultivar, while root diameter and length were affected by all the factors investigated. Greenhouse survival was affected by the cultivar, the presence or absence of charcoal and the IBA level in the in vitro rooting medium, with significant interactions. Provided charcoal was present in the rooting medium, the level of IBA didn`t alter survival. The addition of charcoal to the rooting medium improved greenhouse survival of the three hardest-to-root cultivars. Plug plant stem length; internode length and dry weight were increased by the presence of charcoal in the in vitro rooting medium for all but the easiest to establish cultivar. Chemical names used: 3-indolebutyric acid (IBA).