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  • Author or Editor: B. R. Buttery x
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Abstract

The effect of soil compaction on nodulation, nodule efficiency, and growth of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] and white bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) was investigated in a controlled environment. There was an inverse relationship between soil compaction and root biomass, shoot growth and total leaf area of plant. Fresh weight and number of nodules per plant, nitrogenase activity, and leghemoglobin content per unit weight of nodule decreased in both soybean and white bean as bulk density of soil increased from 1.2 to 1.6 g·cm–3.

Open Access
Authors: and

Abstract

In the article “Soil Compaction Reduces Nodulation, Nodule Efficiency, and Growth of Soybean and White Bean”, by J.C. Tu and B.R. Buttery [HortScience 23(4):722–724, August 1988], the words “Modulation” and “Module” were used in the title instead of the correct “Nodulation” and “Nodule”. The title as noted here is correct.

Open Access
Authors: and

Abstract

Three-year-old peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] trees in a growth room under well-watered conditions were subjected to photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) levels (400-700 nm) of 444, 287, 144, 61, and 19 μmol°s−1m−2. At very low PAR levels (19 and 61 μmol°s−1m−2), the photosynthetic rate (P) declined with increasing temperature. Multiple regression analyses for the 3 highest PAR levels showed that an increase in PAR increased the optimum temperature for both P and stomatal conductance (gs). The highest leaf water potential (ψL) was found at 21°C in all 3 PAR levels. The regression equations also showed that PAR was the main determinant of P and gs, but that temperature was the main determinant of ψL.

Open Access
Authors: and

Abstract

Stomatal conductance, transpiration, and photosynthesis declined steadily with decreasing leaf water potential in seedlings of peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] grown in large pots containing about 84 kg of steam-sterilized sandy loam soil under controlled environmental conditions. Growth and transpiration were reduced mainly through the effect of stomatal closure as soon as water stress commenced.

Open Access
Authors: and

Abstract

Peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] seedlings were grown in large sectional boxes with root systems divided into 4 separate quadrants. Groups of peach seedlings with 3, 2, 1, and 0 quadrants of the root system deprived of water for 3 weeks, were further subjected to moisture stress in all quadrants by withholding water for 5 days, and they were then rewatered. In another treatment, seedlings were subjected to 2 cycles of water stress, applied 3 weeks apart, by completely depriving all quadrants of water until the plants wilted. Transpiration, photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, and xylem pressure potential were measured. Subjecting a large portion of the root (50%) to stress by withholding water only caused a small reduction (17%) in transpiration, photosynthesis, and stomatal conductance. Subjection of various fractions of the root system to severe moisture stress did not affect the shoot:root ratio. The reduction in root growth in dry quadrants was accompanied by the production of more roots in wet quadrants and less transpiring leaf surface and branch growth. The rate of recovery of transpiration and photosynthesis from water stress was greatly influenced by the duration and intensity of wilting as well as by the rate of regeneration of new root systems.

Open Access

Abstract

Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) plants were grown in specially designed sectional treatment boxes which divided the root systems into 4 separate quadrants. Transpiration, photosynthesis, and stomatal conductance were determined in tomato plants with 4, 3, 2 and 1 quadrants of the root system supplied with water. The results suggested that there was no simple relationship between the percentage of root available for water uptake and transpiration rate. The shoot: root ratio of tomato plants increased as the proportions of roots supplied with water increased. The application of water to only 50% or 75% of the root system did not reduce transpiration, photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, or leaf surface area compared to a fully-watered plant. Where a substantial part of the root system (75%) was subject to moisture stress, only a small reduction in transpiration rate (20%) was observed. These results suggested that tomato roots had a greater relative absorption capacity for water uptake in response to the transpirational demand. The recovery of transpiration, photosynthesis, and stomatal conductance following the return to a fully watered state indicated that there had been no damage to the roots in the dry quadrants in any of the treatments.

Open Access